Course detail

# Applied Thermodynamics

FSI-IAT-AAcad. year: 2020/2021

Basic state variables. Ideal gas equation. The mixture of ideal gases. The first law of thermodynamics - heat, work, internal energy, enthalpy. The second law of thermodynamics, entropy. Reversible and irreversible processes of gases. Thermal cycles. Vapor thermodynamics, steam tables, diagrams. Clausius - Clapeyron equation. Thermodynamic processes in vapors. Thermodynamics of humid air. Determining quantities, tables, diagrams. Isobaric air treatment, evaporation from the free surface. Thermodynamics of gas and vapor flow. Adiabatic flow through nozzles. Cycles of gas and steam heat machines. Compressors. Cycles of refrigeration equipment and heat pumps.

Supervisor

Department

Nabízen zahradničním studentům

Pouze domovské fakulty

Learning outcomes of the course unit

Ability to perform technical calculations in the field of thermodynamics: Calculation of thermal machines and cooling equipment. Heat balance of material and machinery systems and equipment. Calculation or modeling of thermodynamics in mechanical systems, gases, vapors, buildings, technological processes.

Prerequisites

Mathematics, Physics at the level of the general bachelor's program in mechanical engineering.

Co-requisites

Not applicable.

Recommended optional programme components

Not applicable.

Recommended or required reading

ÇENGEL, Yunus A. a Michael A. BOLES. Thermodynamics an engineering approach. 8. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2015, 1115 s. ISBN 978-0-07-339817-4. (EN)

MORAN, Michael J., Howard N. SHAPIRO, Daisie D. BOETTNER a Margaret B. BAILEY. Fundamentals of engineering thermodynamics. 9th edition. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2018. ISBN 978-1-119-39138-8. (EN)

ÇENGEL, Yunus A. a Michael A. BOLES. Thermodynamics an engineering approach. 8. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2015, 1115 s. ISBN 978-0-07-339817-4.
(EN)

MORAN, Michael J., Howard N. SHAPIRO, Daisie D. BOETTNER a Margaret B. BAILEY. Fundamentals of engineering thermodynamics. 9th edition. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2018. ISBN 978-1-119-39138-8. (EN)

Kirkpatrick, Allan T., and Colin R. Ferguson. 2016. Internal Combustion Engines: Applied Thermosciences. Third. United Kingdom: John Wiley. (EN)

CATON, J. A. An introduction to thermodynamic cycle simulations for internal combustion engines. 1. The Atrium, Southern Gates, Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley, 2016. ISBN 978-111-9037-569. (EN)

Planned learning activities and teaching methods

The course is taught in the form of lectures that have the character of explanation of basic principles and theory of the given discipline. The exercise is focused on practical mastery of the subject matter covered in lectures.

Assesment methods and criteria linked to learning outcomes

Written (or oral) exam, part of the evaluation is 30% of the exercises. The written part of the exam is solving examples and theoretical questions (or test), evaluation of both of these parts has the same weight.

Language of instruction

English

Work placements

Not applicable.

Aims

The ability to perform technical calculations in the field of thermodynamics. Apply theoretical knowledge in the design and technology fields.

Specification of controlled education, way of implementation and compensation for absences

Controlled participation in lessons, in case of excused absence, calculation of alternative examples. Elaborate a test during the semester.

Classification of course in study plans

- Programme N-ENG-A Master's, 1. year of study, winter semester, 7 credits, compulsory

#### Type of course unit

Lecture

39 hours, optionally

Teacher / Lecturer

Syllabus

1) Basic concepts. Basic laws and equation of state of the ideal gas. Thermal expansion of materials and their use in technical practice. Heat capacity. Measurement of thermodynamic quantities. Ideal gas mixtures, Dalton's law, state equation of mixture and its components. Semi-perfect and real gases. Van der Waals equation of state. Determination of real gas properties, data interpolation.

2) The first law of thermodynamics and its two mathematical forms. Heat, volumetric and technical work, internal energy, enthalpy. Entropy and general equations of entropy changes.

3) Reversible processes of ideal gases, change of state variables, calculation of heat, internal energy, enthalpy, volumetric and technical work and representation in p-v and T-s diagram. Irreversible processes and their importance for practice. Gas throttling, used for flow velocity measurement.

4) The first law of thermodynamics for open system and its equations. Continuity equations. Control volume method based on energy and mass conservation law. Practical applications.

5) Thermal cycles, thermal efficiency, work. Carnot cycle. 2nd law of thermodynamics. Representation of reversible processes and Carnot cycle in the T-s diagram. Reversed and irreversible Carnot cycle.

6) Compressors. Cycles of internal combustion engines, supercharging of internal combustion engines. Combustion turbines.

7) Methods of solving 0D and 1D simulations of working cycles of thermal machines. Real cycles of thermal machines, Matlab / Simulink.

8) Thermodynamics of vapors, p-v, T-s and h-s diagrams and tables of vapors. Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Thermodynamic processes in vapors, change of state variables, calculation of heat, internal energy, enthalpy, volume, and technical work.

9) Thermal power plants. Rankin – Clausius cycle. Cycles of refrigeration equipment and heat pumps.

10) Combustion of fuels. Calorific value, gross calorific value. Stoichiometric combustion equations. Stoichiometric ratio, excess air coefficient.

11) Thermodynamics of humid air. Definition of humidity and enthalpy of humid air, enthalpy-specific humidity diagram. Cooling, heating, mixing and dampening of air, adiabatic evaporation from the free surface. Psychrometer.

12) Continuity equation, Bernoulli, Prandtl tube, speed of sound, Mach number. The adiabatic flow of ideal gas and steam through the tapered orifice and Laval nozzle. Procedure for their calculation. The operation of the Laval nozzle under various inlet conditions and the influence of the back pressure on its operation. Reaction engines, jet, rocket.

13) Jet and rocket engines. Shock waves. Basics of compressible fluid flow modeling.

Exercise

26 hours, compulsory

Teacher / Lecturer

Syllabus

Calculations:

1) State quantities of an ideal gas and ideal gas mixtures. Calorimetric balance calculations.

2) Reversible changes of an ideal gas - state variables, heat, work, changes of internal energy, entropy.

3) Carnot cycle, thermal efficiency, entropy changes. I. Open System Law (Control Volume Method)

4) Compressors, multistage compressors.

5) Cycles of internal combustion engines and gas turbines.

6) 0D and 1D simulations of working cycles of thermal machines. Real cycles of thermal machines, Matlab / Simulink.

7) Thermodynamic processes in vapor - state variables, heat, work, changes in internal energy, entropy.

8) Rankin-Clausius cycle, cycles of thermal power plants including nuclear.

9) Basic parameters of moist air and its treatment (heating, cooling, mixing, dampening).

10) Solving combustion equations. Air consumption calculations. Calculation of calorific value of fuels and mixtures.

11) Adiabatic flow through the tapered orifice or Laval nozzle. Design of its main dimensions.

12) Cycles of combustion turbines, jet and rocket engines.

13) Credit test.

eLearning

**eLearning:** currently opened course