Energy and Emissions
FSI-KEE-AAcad. year: 2020/2021
Currently the effective utilization of energy has become an indisputable priority both in industrial and in municipal spheres. In this area it is necessary to prefer a realistic attitude, i.e. to consider dependency on fossil fuels, while at the same time maximizing utilization of renewable sources of energy.
The course is primarily focused on energy savings and emission reduction in process industry, power industry and municipal sphere. The focus of the course reflects the premise: “Produced emissions cannot be destroyed.” This also implies the main goal – minimize energy consumption and with that also emission production (CO2, NOx, SOx, …). One part of the course is aimed at implementation of energy savings and reduction of pollutants production by means of so called process integration or heat integration based on Pinch Analysis methodology including economic and environmental aspects. Another part is focused on introduction to utilities, combined production of heat and power (cogeneration), utility systems, thermodynamic cycles, utilization of wastes and biomass as alternative or renewable sources of energy.
We present modern methods based on a conceptual approach, which is enabled by application of process engineering principles on energetic systems supplying power to both large-scale and small-scale consumers. This unique combination lately proved to be effective and is applied both in the Czech Republic and abroad. This approach was authored by creators of this course using know-how of top experts from practise.
Nabízen zahradničním studentům
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Students will gain information and knowledge from the following areas:
- Energy systems in industrial processes and municipal sphere.
- Maximal utilization of process and waste heat.
- Environmental protection legislation and emission limits as limiting factors.
- Pollutants reduction, flue-gas and waste gas cleaning.
- Efficient utilization of support simulation computations, mathematical models and software systems.
- Feedback from practical applications.
- Conceptual approach. Suitable combination of theory, experiments and practise for complex and verified solution.
Students will learn to apply theoretical knowledge on particular practical cases. They will learn to work with technical literature.
They will familiarize themselves with state-of-the-art methods in given field and with the ways to apply them. They will realize the necessity of cooperation and team work. They will try to solve practical problems from different areas using professional or personal software systems.
Basic knowledge of thermomechanics (Enthalpy, ideal gas state equations, laws of thermodymics, Rankine cycle, Steam tables . Basic knowledge of courses passed in the previous semester, namely Heat Transfer Processes and Balancing of Process and Energy Systems
Recommended optional programme components
Recommended or required reading
Ganapathy, V.: Industrial boilers and heat recovery steam generators: design, applications, and calculations, CRC Press (2002) (EN)
Klemeš, J. J. (ed.). Handbook of Process Integration (PI). Woodhead Publishing. 2013 (EN)
Rogoff, M.J., Screve, F.: Waste-to-energy: technologies and project implementation. Academic Press (2019) (EN)
Brown, T.: Engineering economics and economic design for process engineers. CRC Press (2016) (EN)
Heinz, B., Singh, M.: Steam Turbines–Design, Applications and Rerating. McGraw-Hill, New York (2009) (EN)
Wu, C.: Thermodynamic cycles: computer-aided design and optimization. CRC Press (2003) (EN)
Smith, R.: Chemical process: design and integration. John Wiley & Sons (2005) (EN)
Sjaak, V., Koppejan, J.: Handbook of Biomass Combustion and Co-firing, ISBN 9036517737. Twente University Press, Enschede, The Netherlands (2002) (EN)
Branchini, L.: Waste-to-energy: advanced cycles and new design concepts for efficient power plants. Springer (2015) (EN)
Planned learning activities and teaching methods
Lectures: presentation of overview, basic principles, particular applications from given area. Presentations are given in English with necessary translations into Czech.
Seminars: hands-on application of the subject, semestral paper.
Assesment methods and criteria linked to learning outcomes
Course-unit credit requirements:
Active participation in seminars, submission of a semestral paper evaluated grade E or better (51 points and more)
Students are evaluated in four phases with individual grades. Each of phase is associated with a weight applied for overal evaluation:
- Semestral paper (weight 25%, 0-50 points…F, 51-60 points…E, 61-70 points…D, 71-80 points…C, 81-90 points…B, 91 points and more...A)
- Written test (point score, weight 25%, 0-5,0 points…F, 5,1-6,0 points…E, 6,1-7,0 points…D, 7,1-8,0 points…C, 8,1-9,0 points…B, 9,1 až 10 points ...A)
- Calculations (point score, weight 25%, 0-5,0 points…F, 5,1-6,0 points…E, 6,1-7,0 points…D, 7,1-8,0 points…C, 8,1-9,0 points…B, 9,1 až 10 points ...A)
Upon receiving grade E or better from both the Written test and Calculations, a student proceeds to an oral exam.
- Oral exam: Students demonstrate their knowledge by proving to understand the subject, not by mere memorization (defence of semester project, explanation of principles using presentations from lectures, point score, weight 25%, 0-5,0 points…F, 5,1-6,0 points…E, 6,1-7,0 points…D, 7,1-8,0 points…C, 8,1-9,0 points…B, 9,1 až 10 points ...A)
Overall score: A to F as weghted average from four stages above
Language of instruction
The objective of the course “Energy & Emissions” and the related goals are:
- Learn to apply knowledge from both theoretical and practical Courses (e.g. connection to “Heat Transfer Processes”).
- Show that without expert knowledge the priorities of energy consumption reduction and pollutants concentration cannot be ensured.
- Get familiar with state-of-the-art methods used abroad in given field and with original approaches developed at the teachers’ workplace.
- Learn to navigate technical literature, mainly foreign one.
- Get familiar with solutions for practical use-cases.
Specification of controlled education, way of implementation and compensation for absences
Lessons are held in computer laboratory. Seminars are mandatory, One absence is allowed. Semestral project finished is necessary to gain credit and to be admitted to oral exam.
Classification of course in study plans
- Programme N-PRI-P Master's, 1. year of study, summer semester, 6 credits, compulsory
Type of course unit
26 hours, optionally
Teacher / Lecturer
1. Introduction: energy consumption, emissions and wastes.
2. Utilities overview
3. Steam and boilers
4. Steam turbines
5. Gas turbines and heat recovery steam generators
6. Heat recovery in waste-to-energy plants
7. Combined heat and power and its role in the future energy provision
8. Process Integration: Termodynamic analysis
9. Process Integration: Energy recovery
10. Process Integration: Utilities selection and heat engines integration
11. Process Integration: New design, optimisation and retrofit for reduction of energy consumption.
12. Emissions Reduction_ Primary Measures
13. Emissions Reduction_ Secondary Measures
26 hours, compulsory
Teacher / Lecturer
Computer aided seminars. Solution of problems related to the lectured topics, based on information from the lectures.