FEKT-BPA-ELAAcad. year: 2020/2021
Acoustic environment, sound propagation, basic quantities and relations, energy transmitted by sound. Physiological acoustics, sound masking and its utilization in compression algorithms, directional and spatial hearing. Noise and its measurement. Room acoustics, room impulse response. Electromechanical and electro-acoustic analogy, acoustic materials and structures. Types and operation principles of electro-acoustic transducers. Microphones, practical design and measurement of characteristics. Loudspeakers, acoustic impedance and distortion, mechanical design, horn-loaded loudspeakers, headphones. Loudspeaker systems, types of loudspeaker enclosures, design and construction of loudspeaker systems and crossovers. Multichannel audio systems, basics of sound reinforcement. Stereo and multichannel techniques of sound pickup.
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Graduate of the course is able to:
- name basic acoustic quantities and their units,
- explain physiology of hearing including binaural auditory perception,
- employ sound level meters and use them for noise and electroacoustic measurements,
- describe room acoustic properties, demonstrate measurement of room impulse response and reverberation time, name materials and structures used for room acoustic treatment,
- categorize electroacoustic transducers and state their principles, properties and their use,
- categorize microphones, state their properties and designs, and demonstrate measurement of their characteristics,
- describe properties of designs used for unloaded and loaded loudspeakers, measure and calculate their parameters,
- design loudspeaker systems and measure their characteristics,
- name types of surround sound systems and describe their principle,
- name methods of multichannel sound pickup and explain their principles.
The knowledge of basic physical laws is required as well as knowledge of laws and quantities in electrical circuits, characteristics of electric circuit elements, circuit behaviour with inertia elements, periodical and non-periodical signal spectrum, random variables and basic terms from area of statistics.
The student who enrols the subject should be able to use instruments for measurement of electrical voltage, current, and resonant frequency, waveform generators and oscilloscopes.
Recommended optional programme components
Recommended or required reading
SCHIMMEL, J. Electroacoustics. Brno, Brno university of Technology. 2015. p. 1 - 120. ISBN978-80-214-5030-1.
SCHIMMEL, J. Electroacoustics - Laboratory Practices. Brno, VUT v Brně. 2015. p. 1 - 59. SCHIMMEL, J. Electroacoustics. Electroacoustics. Brno, VUT v Brně. 2015. p. 1 - 120. ISBN 978-80-214-5030-1.
Benson, K., B. Audio Engineering Handbook. McGraw-Hill, 1988. ISBN 0-07-004777-4 (EN)
Streicher, R., Everest, F., A. The New Stereo Soundbook, 3rd ed. Audio Engineering Associates, 2006. ISBN 978-0-9665162-1-0 (EN)
Zwicker, E., Fastl, H. Psychoacoustics, Facts and Models, 2nd ed. Springer-Verlag, 1999. ISBN 3-540-65063-6 (EN)
Rumsey, F. Spatial Audio. Focal Press, 2001. ISBN 0-240-51623-0 (EN)
Blauert, J. Spatial Hearing, The Psychophysics of Human Sound Localization. The MIT Press, 1997. ISBN 0-262-02413-6 (EN)
Colloms, M., High Performance Loudspeakers, 6th ed. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2005. ISBN 978-0-470094-30-3 (EN)
Planned learning activities and teaching methods
Teaching methods depend on the type of course unit as specified in the article 7 of BUT Rules for Studies and Examinations.
- Lectures provide the explanation of basic principles, subject methodology, examples of problems and their solutions.
- Laboratory exercises support practical acquiring of themes presented at lectures. Active participation of students is needed.
Participation at lectures is recommended. Participation at other ways of instruction is checked.
Course is taking advantage of e-learning (Moodle) system.
Assesment methods and criteria linked to learning outcomes
Evaluation of study results follows Rules for Studies and Examinations of BUT and Dean's Regulation to the Rules for Studies and Examinations of BUT. Up to 40 points is given for correct results and elaboration of all laboratory exercises. The minimal scale of elaboration of particular laboratory exercises and completive questions are specified by a regulation issued by the guarantee of the course and updated for every academic year. Up to 60 points is given for the final written examination and it is necessary to get at least 15 points for its successful completion. The exam consists of 10 groups of questions in the field of acoustics and electroacoustics according to the subject syllabus and one question is selected from each group.
Language of instruction
1. Acoustic environment, basic quantities and relations, wave equation of sound propagation, energy transmitted by sound, sound spectrum. Types of acoustic fields.
2. Physiological acoustics, subjective and objective properties of sound, sound masking and its utilization in audio compression algorithms.
3. Directional and spatial hearing, 3D room simulation using headphones and loudspeakers.
4. Noise and its measurement, noise clases, loudness measurement according to Steven's and Zwicker's models.
5. Sound level meters, analyzers for electroacoustic measurements, calibration of measurement chain. Measurement of acoustic power and sound intensity.
6. Basics of room acoustics,geometric, wave and statistic models, room impulse response, measurement of reverberation time, objective parameters of listening rooms.
7. Electromechanical and electro-acoustic analogy, acoustic materials and structures.
8. Electro-acoustic transducer as the system, types and operation principles of transducers.
9. Gradient microphones, wave and combined microphones, design and measurement of characteristics.
10. Loudspeakers, acoustic impedance and distortion, mechanical design, horn-loaded loudspeakers. Types and design of headphones, measurement of characteristics.
11. Loudspeaker systems, types of loudspeaker enclosures, design and construction of loudspeaker enclosures and crossovers. Acoustic lenses.
12. Multichannel sound reproduction, basics of sound reinforcement.
13. Stereo and multichannel techniques of sound pickup.
The aim of the course is to make students familiar with the chain of processing acoustic signals from their origination through their transformation into electric signals and back to acoustic signals up to the listener's final perception.
Specification of controlled education, way of implementation and compensation for absences
It is mandatory to pass all laboratory exercises in regular or alternative terms to complete the course. Other forms of the checked instructions are specified by a regulation issued by the guarantee of the course and updated for every academic year.