Fundamentals of Sound System Design
FEKT-MPC-SD1Acad. year: 2020/2021
Objectives of sound system design, sound reproduction, PA system, FFT analysis, phase and amplitude frequency response. Interaction of audio signals, linear vs. logarithmic scale, phase addition. Coupling zone, transition zone, combing zone, isolation zone. Ripple and variability of ripple of frequency characteristic, sound pressure levels, spectral content, audio image, localization. Types of crossovers. Beam direction, coverage and beam angle - beamwidth, constant directivity, proportional / progressive directivity. Types of speaker arrays. Line source array, coupled point source array. Volume in terms of sound system design, crest factor, headroom. Localization, Haas effect from perspective of sound system design. Stereo and its perception. Excessive detection of amplified sound. Decision factors of sound system design, requirements for prediction software, source-reflection interaction, spatial acoustics in terms of design of sound systems.
Learning outcomes of the course unit
On completion of the course, students are able to:
- describe principles of sound waves addition in space,
- describe the electronic and acoustic crossovers generated during sound reinforcement,
- specify parameters of loudspeaker box,
- describe the used types of speaker arrays,
- specify the decision factors of the sound system design,
- describe the acoustics of space in terms of the sound system design.
Knowledge of basic physical laws and quantities of the sound field, spectra of periodic and non-periodic signals and random variables are required.
Recommended optional programme components
Recommended or required reading
McCARTHY, Bob. Sound Systems: Design and Optimization, 2nd Edition. 566 stran. Focal Press; 2009, ISBN: 978-0240521565 (EN)
EVEREST, F. Alton. Master handbook of acoustics. 4. vyd. McGraw-Hill/TAB Electronics. 615 stran. 2001. ISBN 978-0071603324 (EN)
RAICHEL, Daniel R., Science and application of acoustic, second edition. Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 647 stran. 2006. ISBN: 978-0387-26062-4 (EN)
DAVIS, D., PATRONIS, E. Jr., BROWN, P., Sound system engineering, fourth edition. 627 stran. Focal Press; 2013, ISBN: 978-0-240-81846-7 (EN)
Planned learning activities and teaching methods
Teaching methods depend on the type of course unit as specified in article 7 of the BUT Rules for Studies and Examinations.
- Lectures provide explanations of the basic principles, subject methodology, examples of problems and their solutions.
- Laboratory exercises support practical mastering of the themes presented in lectures. Active participation of students is required.
Participation in lectures is recommended. Participation in other ways of instruction is checked.
Course is taking advantage of e-learning (Moodle) system.
Assesment methods and criteria linked to learning outcomes
Evaluation of study results follow the BUT Rules for Studies and Examinations and Dean's Regulation complementing the BUT Rules for Studies and Examinations. Up to 20 points are awarded for the tests in theoretical knowledge in the laboratory exercises. Up to 20 points can be obtained for correct results and elaboration of all laboratory exercises. The minimal scope of the elaboration of a particular laboratory exercise and the complementary questions are specified by a regulation issued by the guarantor of the course and updated for every academic year. Up to 60 points are given for the final written examination, and it is necessary to get at least 20 points for its successful completion.
Language of instruction
1. Sound system design objectives, reference signal, sound reproduction, PA system, phase, polarity, phase and amplitude frequency response, addition of sound signals. Coupling zone, transition zone, combing zone, isolation zone. Ripple and variability of ripple of frequency characteristic, sound pressure levels, spectral content, audio image, localization.
2. Crossover types, filter types, spectral electronic dividers, spectral acoustic crossovers.
3. Directivity, coverage and beam angle of the speaker - beamwidth, order of the filter vs. speaker order, constant directivity, proportional / progressive directivity, spatial acoustic dividers, spatial acoustic crossover. FAR, isobar, splay.
4. Types of speaker arrays, point source, line source, concave source. Coupled vs. distributed (uncoupled) sources. Speaker distance. Line source array, coupled point source array.
5. Volume in sound system design, crest factor, headroom. Localization, HRTF, ITD, ILD, Haas effect in terms of sound system design. Stereo and its perception (simulation and practical verification). Perception of tonal changes, spatial changes, echoes. Excessive detection of amplified sound.
6. Decision making factors of the sound system design, requirements for prediction software, source-reflection interaction, spatial acoustics in terms of design of sound systems.
The aim of the subject is to acquaint students with the field of design of sound systems, the basics of sound physics in terms of system design, the way of mutual interaction of sound waves, the description of basic properties of building blocks of sound systems and the way of their use, and introduction to real-time sound design.
Specification of controlled education, way of implementation and compensation for absences
It is obligatory to undergo all laboratory exercises in regular or alternative terms to complete the course. Other forms of checked instruction are specified by a regulation issued by the guarantor of the course and updated for every academic year.