Imaging Systems with Ionizeing Radiation
FEKT-MPA-ZIZAcad. year: 2020/2021
This course is focused to using of ionizing radiation in medical imaging. First part of the course is dedicated to basics of atomic physics which are neccessary for understanding of physical principles of X-ray and gamma rays. In the next part we focus to projection X-ray systems in different applications (projection skiagraphy, fluoroscopy, mammography, bone denzitometry and dental X-rays). We continue with using of X-ray in computed tomography (CT) - definition of Radon's transform as basic concept of image reconstruction, constructional aspects of CT systems. Third part of this course is focused to medical imaging in nuclear medicine - planar gammagraphy, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET). The last part deals with hybrid imaging systems which combines two imaging modalities into single system. Image quality and achievable parameters are discussed for all imaging systems.
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Recommended optional programme components
Recommended or required reading
JERROLD T. BUSHBERG . Essential physics of medical imaging. 3. ed., Internat. ed. S.l.: Lippincott Williams And W, 2011. ISBN 9781451118100. (CS)
BRONZINO, Joseph D. The biomedical engineering handbook. Medical Devices and Systems. 3rd ed. Boca Raton: CRC/Taylor & Francis, 2006. ISBN 0849321220. (CS)
CHERRY, Simon R, James A SORENSON a Michael E PHELPS. Physics in nuclear medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders, c2012. ISBN 978-1-4160-5198-5. (CS)
RUSSO, Paolo, . Handbook of X-ray imaging: physics and technology. Boca Raton. ISBN 14-987-4152-5. (CS)
Planned learning activities and teaching methods
Assesment methods and criteria linked to learning outcomes
Language of instruction
1. History of Medical Imaging - first look to different imagin modalities, basic physical principles related to development of imaging systems, quantitative and qualitative parameters of medical imaging, image quality assessment.
2. Physics of ionizing ray - electromagentic ray, atom and its models, electron transitions, characteristic radiation and Auger electron emission, nuclear stability, radioactivity, interactions of radiation with matter (all kinds), attenuation of radiation
3. X-Ray Systems - geometric acquisition, sumated imaging, x-ray tube - basic principle, characteristic radiation, Bremsstrahlung, types of x-ray tubes, materials for anodes, X-Ray generators, filtration and collimation of the radiation, primary collimator.
4. X-Ray Systems - scattered radiation, Bucky grid, anti-scatter grid, detection of X-Ray - photographic film, computed digital radiography (memory foils), flat panels with direct and indirect detection of radiation, specifications for fluoroscopy - image intensifier, different acquistion parameters.
5. X-Ray Systems - nontypical applications - fluoroscopy, using of contrast agents, mammography, dental X-Ray, bone densitometry, dual energy acquisition, 3D digital tomosynthesis, image quality of X-Ray Systems
6. CT systems - tommographic systems, basic principles - parallel projections, image reconstruction, algebraic reconstruction, simple back projection, filtered back projection, iterative reconstructions, fan beam projections, helical data interpolation, multi-layer detectors interpolations, definition of CT number
7. CT systems - historical overview of CT systems and generations - first, sencond, third, slip ring technology, fourth and fifth generation, helical systems, sub-sekund systems, multi-layer systems. X-Ray tubes for CT systems - differences to standard X-Ray tubes.
8. CT systems - detection of radiation in CT - gas detectors, scintilators, technologies for production of multi-layer detectors. Acquisition parameters - anode voltage, anode current, helical pitch, binning. Technical perspective of CT system components - gantry, patient table and others. Image quality of CT systems.
9. Nuclear Medicine Imaging - radionuclides as a source of ionizing radiation, gamma radiation, sumation imaging - planar gammagraphy, Anger camera, semicondutor´s material and detection by semiconductiors
10. Nuclear Medicine Imaging - tomographic systems - single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET) - definitions, projections, set of projections, image reconstructions, coincidence, time-of-fligh detection and reconstructions, typical radiopharmaceuticals (technecium 99m, FDG, etc).
11. Hybrid Medical Imaging - construction, combination of selected imaging modalities - advantages, disadvantages, correction of attenuation, SPECT-CT, PET-CT, PET-MRI, unusual combinations for preclinical research
12. Radiation biology - dose, negative effects of ionizing radiation to tissue, limitations of radiation dose, simulations of radiation protection
The aim of this course is an extension of knowledge in medical physics and medical imaging obtained in bachelor's study. This course is focused to using of ionizing radiation in medical imaging - step by step we discuss X-ray projection systems, computed tomography systems (CT) and imaging in nuclear medicine.
Classification of course in study plans
- Programme MPA-BIO Master's, 2. year of study, winter semester, 5 credits, compulsory