Imaging Systems with Ionizeing Radiation
FEKT-MPA-ZIZAcad. year: 2020/2021
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Recommended optional programme components
Recommended or required reading
JERROLD T. BUSHBERG . Essential physics of medical imaging. 3. ed., Internat. ed. S.l.: Lippincott Williams And W, 2011. ISBN 9781451118100. (CS)
BRONZINO, Joseph D. The biomedical engineering handbook. Medical Devices and Systems. 3rd ed. Boca Raton: CRC/Taylor & Francis, 2006. ISBN 0849321220. (CS)
CHERRY, Simon R, James A SORENSON a Michael E PHELPS. Physics in nuclear medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders, c2012. ISBN 978-1-4160-5198-5. (CS)
RUSSO, Paolo, . Handbook of X-ray imaging: physics and technology. Boca Raton. ISBN 14-987-4152-5. (CS)
Planned learning activities and teaching methods
Assesment methods and criteria linked to learning outcomes
Language of instruction
1. History of Medical Imaging - first look to different imagin modalities, basic physical principles related to development of imaging systems, quantitative and qualitative parameters of medical imaging, image quality assessment.
2. Physics of ionizing ray - electromagentic ray, atom and its models, electron transitions, characteristic radiation and Auger electron emission, nuclear stability, radioactivity, interactions of radiation with matter (all kinds), attenuation of radiation
3. X-Ray Systems - geometric acquisition, sumated imaging, x-ray tube - basic principle, characteristic radiation, Bremsstrahlung, types of x-ray tubes, materials for anodes, X-Ray generators, filtration and collimation of the radiation, primary collimator.
4. X-Ray Systems - scattered radiation, Bucky grid, anti-scatter grid, detection of X-Ray - photographic film, computed digital radiography (memory foils), flat panels with direct and indirect detection of radiation, specifications for fluoroscopy - image intensifier, different acquistion parameters.
5. X-Ray Systems - nontypical applications - fluoroscopy, using of contrast agents, mammography, dental X-Ray, bone densitometry, dual energy acquisition, 3D digital tomosynthesis, image quality of X-Ray Systems
6. CT systems - tommographic systems, basic principles - parallel projections, image reconstruction, algebraic reconstruction, simple back projection, filtered back projection, iterative reconstructions, fan beam projections, helical data interpolation, multi-layer detectors interpolations, definition of CT number
7. CT systems - historical overview of CT systems and generations - first, sencond, third, slip ring technology, fourth and fifth generation, helical systems, sub-sekund systems, multi-layer systems. X-Ray tubes for CT systems - differences to standard X-Ray tubes.
8. CT systems - detection of radiation in CT - gas detectors, scintilators, technologies for production of multi-layer detectors. Acquisition parameters - anode voltage, anode current, helical pitch, binning. Technical perspective of CT system components - gantry, patient table and others. Image quality of CT systems.
9. Nuclear Medicine Imaging - radionuclides as a source of ionizing radiation, gamma radiation, sumation imaging - planar gammagraphy, Anger camera, semicondutor´s material and detection by semiconductiors
10. Nuclear Medicine Imaging - tomographic systems - single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET) - definitions, projections, set of projections, image reconstructions, coincidence, time-of-fligh detection and reconstructions, typical radiopharmaceuticals (technecium 99m, FDG, etc).
11. Hybrid Medical Imaging - construction, combination of selected imaging modalities - advantages, disadvantages, correction of attenuation, SPECT-CT, PET-CT, PET-MRI, unusual combinations for preclinical research
12. Radiation biology - dose, negative effects of ionizing radiation to tissue, limitations of radiation dose, simulations of radiation protection
Classification of course in study plans
- Programme MPA-BIO Master's, 2. year of study, winter semester, 5 credits, compulsory