Imaging Systems with Nonionizeing Radiation
FEKT-MPA-ZSZAcad. year: 2020/2021
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Recommended optional programme components
Recommended or required reading
HILL, C. R, J. C BAMBER a G. ter HAAR. Physical principles of medical ultrasonics. 2nd ed. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley, c2004. ISBN 978-0-471-97002-6. (CS)
MCROBBIE, Donald W. MRI from picture to proton. 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0521683845. (CS)
JERROLD T. BUSHBERG .. Essential physics of medical imaging. 3. ed., Internat. ed. S.l.: Lippincott Williams And W, 2011. ISBN 9781451118100. (CS)
BRONZINO, Joseph D. The biomedical engineering handbook. Medical Devices and Systems. 3rd ed. Boca Raton: CRC/Taylor & Francis, 2006. ISBN 0849321220. (CS)
Planned learning activities and teaching methods
Assesment methods and criteria linked to learning outcomes
Language of instruction
1. Magnetic Resonance Phenomenom - history, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) vs electron magnetic resonance, NMR spectroscopy and imagin. Physical principles of magnetic resonance - quantum-mechanistic model, vector model, Bloch´s equations, precesion, relaxation.
2. Basic NMR experiments - excitation, FID signal, spin echo, gradient echo, acquistion parameter - repetition time (TR), TE time, image weighting by relaxation times T1 and T2.
3. NMR hardware - main magnet, permanent and superconducting magnet, active and passive shimming, homogenity of main field B0, gradient coils, RF coils for different applications.
4. NMR imaging - from proton to image, slice excitation/selection, k-space, frequency and phase encoding, image reconstruction.
5. Pulse sequences - spin echo, gradient echo, inversion recovery, saturation recovery, fast sequences - multi-shot, multi-band, EPI.
6. Special applications - using of gadolinium based contrast agent, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), arterial spin labelling (ASL), perfusion parameters mapping - DCE, DSC, spectroscopy, diffusion-weighted imaging (dMRI).
7. Using of ultrasound in medical imaging - wave equation, ultrasound wave described as change of pressure in time and spate, acoustic impedance, reflection. Magnetostriction and piezoelectric crystals, transducers.
8. Ultrasound system - development chart, ultrasound transducer types - linear, convex, phase-array. Different types of contstruction, hardware and software focusing. TGC amplifier, data conversion, imaging. Basic ultrasound modes - A mode, B mode, 3D imaging, TM mode, artifacts and image quality assessment.
9. Advanced ultrasound techniques - Doppler effect, coninutous Doppler, pulse-wave Doppler, color and power Doppler, ultrasound contrast agents, perfusion imaging - overview of techniques for qualitative and quantitative assessment of perfusion parameters. Elastography, ultrasound tomography, photoacoustic imaging.
10. Endocsopy - principles of visible light endoscopy, types of constructions - rigid, endoscopic mirror, flexible (fibroscopy), capsule endoscopy, ultrasound in endoscopy (transesofageal echocardiography, others). Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS).
11. Thermography (infrared cameras) - physical principles of thermography, noctovision, Planck emission law, Wien law, Stefan-Boltzman law, emissivity, absorptivity, absolute black body, illustration of inrared radiation detection.
12. Thermography - principles of construcvtions, optical systems for inrared radiation - lens, mirrors, detection of radiation - selective (photon) and nonselective (thermic) detectors, advantages, disadvantages, cooling and thermal stabilization of detectors, microbolometric 2D FPA arrays, using of inrared cameras in medicine, achieved parameters.
Classification of course in study plans
- Programme MPA-BIO Master's, 1. year of study, summer semester, 5 credits, compulsory