Course detail

Aerodynamics and Flight Mechanics

FSI-OAMAcad. year: 2019/2020

Conservation laws, stream lines, equations of continuity and Bernoulli, speed measurement, aerodynamic forces. Boundary layers, origin of lift, airfoils, finite span wings, induced drag, high lif devices. Compressibility effects, area rule, supercritical airfoils. Continuous supersonic expansion, shock waves, aerodynamic heating at supersonic speeds.
Students will gain basic information and overview to flows around aircraft.
Flight mechanics is a follow up to the first part of the course. Students will be made familiar with the classical theory of the atmospheric aircraft performance. Performance in horizontal flight, performance at climbing and gliding, performance at turning flight are included. Further they will have a clear idea of range and endurance, take-off and landing operations, classical theory of the stability and control of aircraft, development of general equations of motion for an atmospheric aircraft, classical small perturbation equations of motion, aircraft state equations. The course offers for students the knowledge necessary for an dynamic stability modes estimation and their influence on aircraft handling, longitudinal and lateral-directional stability. Controllability and manoeuvrability. Trim.

Learning outcomes of the course unit

Students will gain information on fluid flows. This basic knowledge is required to understand possibilities and limitation of aircraft flights.
Determination of the basic technical aircraft data in the classic aircraft performance and stability and control. Qualitative and quantitative appraisal of aircraft performance and stability and control regarding the design and optimal use of an aircraft.

Prerequisites

The basics of mathematics - differential and integral calculus, common differential equations. The basics of common mechanics – force effect on a body, kinematics, dynamics. The basics of thermomechanics, 1st and 2nd Laws.

Co-requisites

Not applicable.

Recommended optional programme components

Not applicable.

Recommended or required reading

Prof. V. Brož: Aerodynamika NR
Anderson, J., D.: Aerodynamics
Prof. V. Brož: Aerodynamika VR
Daněk,V.: Mechanika letu I - Letové výkony, skripta VUT Brno, 1994
Daněk,V.: Mechanika letu I - Letové výkony, skripta VUT Brno, 1994
McCormick,B.W.: Aerodynamics,Aeronautics and Flight Mechanics,John Wiley and Sons,New York,1979
Ruijgrok,G.J.J.: Elements of Airplane Performance,Delft University Press,1990
Etkin,B.,Reid,L.D.: Dynamics of Flight - Stability and Control, John Wiley and Sons,Inc.,New York, 1996
Anderson, J.D., Jr., Aircraft performance and design, McGraw-Hill, 1999

Planned learning activities and teaching methods

The course is taught through lectures explaining the basic principles and theory of the discipline. Exercises are focused on practical topics presented in lectures. Teaching is suplemented by practical laboratory work.

Assesment methods and criteria linked to learning outcomes

Conditions to obtain the course-unit credit: attendance at exercises (80% at the minimum), presentation of calculation tasks records or reports from laboratory exercises. The exam has written (the essential one) and oral parts. Evaluation fulfils the University requirements.

Language of instruction

Czech

Work placements

Not applicable.

Aims

The goal of aerodynamic part is concentrated to give students basic knowledge to flow around an aircraft on the base of conservation laws of mass, motion and energy.
The goal is to explain the basic flight mechanics of atmospheric aircraft. Familiarizing students with the method of assessment of classical theory of performance and a judgment of aerodynamic and propulsion characteristics efficiency on flight performance.Familiarizing students with the methods of calculation of the stability and aircraft control. Students will also learn to judge the influence of aircraft design parameters on its flying characteristics.

Specification of controlled education, way of implementation and compensation for absences

Lectures are optional. Seminars are compulsory, and the attendance (80% at the minimum) is checked and recorded. The absence (in justifiable cases) can be compensated by personal consultation with the lecturer and elaboration of individually assigned topics and exercises. Individual tasks must be finished and handed in the week credits are awarded as the latest.

Classification of course in study plans

  • Programme M2I-P Master's

    branch M-LPR , 1. year of study, winter semester, 6 credits, compulsory
    branch M-LPR , 1. year of study, winter semester, 6 credits, compulsory

Type of course unit

 

Lecture

52 hours, optionally

Teacher / Lecturer

Syllabus

1. Conservation laws, aerodynamic forces and moments ISA.
2. Boundary layers, airfoils, polar curve, influence of Reynolds number.
3. Finite span wing, induced drag, high lift devices, spoilers, vortex generators.
4. Wing polar curve. Compress. effects in subsonic range of M No, recalc. of characteristics
5. Transonic range, area rule, supercritical airfoils.
6. Supersonic flows, continuous expansion, shock waves.
7. Supersonic shock-induced drag, aerodynamic heating.
8. Symmetric flights.Horizontal flight. Steady climbing and gliding flight. Gliding curve.
9. Turns. Limitations of turning flight. Cruise performance. Range. Endurance.
10. Take-off and landing performance. Performance requirements of JAR standards.
11. Longitudinal and lateral-directional static stability. Longitudinal static control. Trim.
12. Lateral-directional control of airplane. Flight with asymmetric thrust.
13. Longitudinal and lateral-directional dynamic stability. Short-period,phugoids. Dutch roll.

Laboratory exercise

4 hours, compulsory

Teacher / Lecturer

Syllabus

1. Measurement of pressure distribution at airfoil surface.

Exercise

22 hours, compulsory

Teacher / Lecturer

Syllabus

1. Aerodynamic forces and moments.
2. Continuity equation, Bernoulli equation, speed measurement.
3. International Standard Atmosphere, measurement of pressure at body surface.
4. Airfoils, wing of finite span.
5. Subsonic flow around airfoils and wings.
6. Supersonic flow, supersonic continuous expansion, shock waves.
7. Thrust and power diagram calculation. Calculatipon of stall and maximum speeds.
8. Climbing diagram. Ceiling Calculation. Hodograph curve calculation.
9. Steady turning performance calculation. Turning diagrams calculation.
10.Airfield take-off performance. Take-off and landibg performance calculation.
11.Control-fixed neutral point and manoeuvre point of airplane calculation.
12.Control force gradient Fv=f(V) and control force per g calculation.