FEKT-CSHEAcad. year: 2019/2020
Relations between subjective and objective characteristics of sound and audio signal transfer in electrical systems. Mixing console: structure, channel strips, connection to buses, outputs, digital mixing desks, DJ mixers. Measurement and indication of the level, spectrum and envelope of audio signals. Audio effects: equalizers, dynamic processors, room simulation, guitar effects, phase vocoder, spectral processing. Digital audio signal processing, A/D and D/A conversion, dithering, digital audio interfaces. Digital audio recording, hard disc recording, non-destructive editing, sound cards. Computer digital audio workstations, plug-in technology. Audio signal synthesis: additive, subtractive, and modulation methods, wavetable synthesis, mathematical modelling. Electronic music instruments, samplers. MIDI communication interface, devices, bus interconnection. Synchronization, relative and absolute time codes. Control of sound, light and stage equipment.
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Graduate of the course is able to:
- describe structure of the mixing console, explain its operation and use it for recording or sound reinforcement,
- explain principles of measurement of level and other parameters of analog and digital audio signal,
- describe structure and operation principle of basic types of audio effects, describe type of transformation which occurs in them, and use them for audio processing,
- explain principle of digital audio signal processing and transmission,
- explain principle and structure of digital audio signal hard disc recording (HDR),
- describe structure of various types of audio interfaces and structure of digital audio workstation (DAW),
- name basic methods of music signal synthesis and use them for sound production,
- describe structure of the MIDI protocol, name messages that uses, and use them for controlling studio equipment,
- describe types of synchronization signals, choose proper type of synchronization for given system,
- describe structure of the DMX512 protocol and use it for controlling light and stage equipment.
The knowledge of basic laws and quantities in electrical circuits is required as well as characteristics of electric circuit elements, circuit behaviour with inertia elements, circuit topologies with operational amplifiers and their characteristics, periodical and non-periodical signal spectrum, continuous- and discrete-time systems.
The student who enrols the subject should be able to use instruments for measurement of electrical voltage, current, and resonant frequency, waveform generators and oscilloscopes.
Recommended optional programme components
Recommended or required reading
Benson, B. K.::Audio Engineering Handbook,McGraw-Hill Book Comp. N.Y. USA, 1988 (EN)
Zölzer, U. Digital Audio Signal Processing. Technical University of Hamburg, Germany. (EN)
Russ, M. Sound Synthesis and Sampling. Focal Press, Oxford, 1996. (EN)
Watkinson, J. The Art of Digital Audio, 3rd ed. Focal Press, 2001. ISBN 0-240-51587-0 (EN)
Planned learning activities and teaching methods
Teaching methods depend on the type of course unit as specified in the article 7 of BUT Rules for Studies and Examinations.
- Lectures provide the explanation of basic principles, subject methodology, examples of problems and their solutions.
- Laboratory exercises support practical acquiring of themes presented at lectures. Active participation of students is needed.
Participation at lectures is recommended. Participation at other ways of instruction is checked.
Assesment methods and criteria linked to learning outcomes
Evaluation of study results follows Rules for Studies and Examinations of BUT and Dean's Regulation to the Rules for Studies and Examinations of BUT. Up to 20 points is given for test from theoretical knowledge in the laboratory exercises. Up to 20 points is given for correct results and elaboration of all laboratory exercises. The minimal scale of elaboration of particular laboratory exercises and completive questions are specified by a regulation issued by the guarantee of the course and updated for every academic year. Up to 60 points is given for the final written examination and it is necessary to get at least 15 points for its successful completion. The exam consists of 10 groups of questions in the field of acoustics and electroacoustics according to the subject syllabus and one question is selected from each group.
Language of instruction
1. Sound and its propagation, time-variable spectrum of sound. Transformation of acoustic signal into electrical signal, transfer and distribution of audio signal in electrical system.
2. Mixing desk: input circuits, equalizers, dynamic processing, channel strip, buses, outputs, interfacing external equipment, Mute and Solo functions, talkback, level diagram, DJ mixer.
3. Digital audio signal processing and transfer: sampling, anti-aliasing LPF, quantization, sigma-delta converter, normalization, dithering. Digital audio interfaces.
4. Measurement and indication of level, spectrum and envelope of audio signal, phase measurement, phase scope.
5. Digital mixing desk, digital audio recording, HDR systems.
6. Sound cards, audio signal recording and editing in computer audio workstation, plug-in technology.
7. Audio effects: frequency filters, dynamic processors, delay-line effects, room simulation.
8. Audio effects: modulation effects, wave shapers, quitar combo simulation.
9. Audio effects: pitch shifting, time compression and expansion, spectral processing, spatial effects.
10. Audio signal synthesis, linear and non-linear methods, digital synthesis, mathematical modelling.
11. Electronic musical instruments, analog-modelling synthesizer, sampler, polyphonic and multitimbral instruments.
12. Communication interfaces in music electronics, MIDI interface.
13. Synchronization of audio and video equipment and electronic musical instruments. Controlling audio, light and stage equipment.
The aim of the course is to make students familiar with the operation principle and use of audio equipment, electronic musical instruments, computer digital audio workstations and their installation in sound studios.
Specification of controlled education, way of implementation and compensation for absences
It is mandatory to pass all laboratory exercises in regular or alternative terms to complete the course. Other forms of the checked instructions are specified by a regulation issued by the guarantee of the course and updated for every academic year.