Course detail

Analysis of Signals and Systems

FEKT-BKC-ASIAcad. year: 2019/2020

One-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) signals and systems with continuous time and their mathematical models. Signals sampling. One-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) signals and discrete-time systems and their mathematical models. Examples of real signals. Representation in the time and frequency domains, Fourier representation of signals, mutual properties. FFT definition and method of calculation. Z transform, unilateral and bilateral transform, direct and inverse transform. Frequency response and transfer function. Modulations in communication technology. Definition of power spectral density. The issue is illustrated by the examples of specific signals and systems, and these examples are presented in Matlab. Numerical exercises are focused mainly on examples of signal processing and Fourier representation of signals. In the laboratory, measurements and simulations of signals and systems are done employing spectrum analyzer with FFT and using appropriate measurement products for specific measuring instruments.

Learning outcomes of the course unit

On completion of the course, students are able to:
- define, describe and visualize continuous and discrete-time signals
- perform some operations with signals such as convolution, correlation, time shift, time scale
- define continuous and discrete-time systems and describe their properties (time invariance, linearity, causality, stability)
- work with transfer function, impulse and frequency response
- calculate a response of LTI system
- perform spectral analysis of signal using the Fourier series, Fourier transform, discrete-time Fourier transform, discrete Fourier series, discrete Fourier transform and fast Fourier transform
- understand function of simple filters
- describe A/D and D/A conversion and prevent aliasing
- apply the Z transform
- describe differences between IIR and FIR systems
- connect partial system sections
- work with basic modulations
- mathematically describe stochastic processes
- estimate power spectral density


Knowledge of the high school level math and physics is required. Emphasis is placed on the knowledge of complex numbers and their application.


Not applicable.

Recommended optional programme components

Not applicable.

Recommended or required reading

SMÉKAL, Z.: Analýza signálů a soustav – BASS. Elektronické texty, VUT Brno, 2012. ISBN 978-80-214-4453-9 (CS)
SMÉKAL, Z.: Systémy a signály – 1D a 2D diskrétní a číslicové zpracování. Sdělovací technika, 2013. ISBN 80-86645-22-0 (CS)
SMÉKAL, Z.: Deterministické a náhodné signály pro integrovanou výuku VUT a VŠB-TUO. Elektronické texty, VUT Brno, 2013. ISBN 978-80-214-4826-1 (CS)
SMÉKAL, Z.: Signals and Systems Analysis for joint teaching programme of BUT and VSB-TUO. Elektronické texty, VUT Brno, 2014. ISBN 978-80-214-5006-6 (CS)

Planned learning activities and teaching methods

The subject includes both lectures, and numerical and laboratory exercises. The teaching methods are chosen according to type of education. The lectures combine modern audiovisual Power Point presentation with more detailed derivation of fundamental methods and algorithms on the board. Applets are also used to increase the clarity of instruction. All lectures and examples are given in e-learning. In numeric exercises, the students learn the basic mathematical methods for the analysis of signals and systems. In laboratory exercises the students will try signals and systems analysis using specially designed hardware.

Assesment methods and criteria linked to learning outcomes

Lab exercises are mandatory for successfully passing this course and students have to obtain the required credits. For lab work and numerical exercise tests they can get 40 out of 100 points. The remaining 60 points can be obtained by successfully passing the final written examination.

Language of instruction


Work placements

Not applicable.

Course curriculum

1. Signals and their mathematical models
2. Systems and their mathematical models
3. Periodic signals and their spectrum
4. Fourier representation of aperiodic continuous-time signals
5. Continuous-time systems
6. Sampling of continuous-time signals
7. Discrete-time signals
8. Discrete-time Fourier transform
9. Fast Fourier Transform
10. Z transform and its properties
11. Discrete-time systems
12. Signals in base-band and shifted-band
13. Power spectral density and its calculation


The aim of the course is to acquaint students with one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) signals and systems with continuous-time, signals and systems with discrete-time, and with impulse and digital signals and systems. It is also necessary to introduce the concept of 1D and 2D signal spectrum and emphasize its difference from the frequency response of 1D and 2D system. Consequently, the aim is to provide students with basic information about random signals and their impact on systems, introduce modulations and define description of the characteristics of communication systems.

Specification of controlled education, way of implementation and compensation for absences

The content and forms of instruction in the evaluated course are specified by a regulation issued by the lecturer responsible for the course and updated for every academic year.

Classification of course in study plans

  • Programme BKC-MET Bachelor's, 2. year of study, winter semester, 6 credits, compulsory
  • Programme BKC-TLI Bachelor's, 2. year of study, winter semester, 6 credits, compulsory

  • Programme EEKR-CZV lifelong learning

    branch ET-CZV , 1. year of study, winter semester, 6 credits, compulsory

Type of course unit



39 hours, optionally

Teacher / Lecturer

Exercise in computer lab

14 hours, compulsory

Teacher / Lecturer

Laboratory exercise

12 hours, compulsory

Teacher / Lecturer