Aircraft Design I
FSI-OK1Acad. year: 2018/2019
The course is concerned with the following topics: Design of aircraft with unmovable carrying surface, including the strength of carrying structure considering airworthiness requirements. Stability, controllability and high-lift devices including. Design and structure of carrying surfaces, means of stability and controllability.
Learning outcomes of the course unit
Students acquire theoretical knowledge concerning the design of aircraft with regard to international regulations.
Basic knowledge of aerodynamics of an aircraft. Basic knowledge of strength and elastic theory. Basic knowledge of aircraft materials.
Recommended optional programme components
Recommended or required reading
Čalkovský A., Pávek J.: Konstrukce a pevnost letadel I., Brno, 1986. (CS)
Mertl, V.: Konstrukce a projektování letadel, Vysoké učení technické v Brně, Fakulta strojního inženýrství, Brno, 2000. (CS)
Niu, C. Y.: Airframe structural design, 2nd ed.,Conmilit press LTD., Hong-kong, 1988. (EN)
PÁVEK, J., KOPŘIVA, Z.: Konstrukce a projektování letadel 1. Vyd.1. Brno, VAAZ, 1979. (CS)
SLAVÍK, S.: Stavba letadel. Praha: Vydavatelství ČVUT, 1997. (CS)
Roskam, J.: Airplane design – Part V: Component weight estimation, Roskam aviation and engineering corporation, Ottawa, 1985. (EN)
Planned learning activities and teaching methods
The course is taught through lectures explaining the basic principles and theory of the discipline. Exercises are focused on practical topics presented in lectures.
Assesment methods and criteria linked to learning outcomes
Course-unit credit requirements: participation in the course (80% at the minimum), presentation of diploma project and interview about the project topic. The exam consists of the oral part only.
Language of instruction
The goal is to set the general principles of students’ diploma project and their application to specific diploma project tasks.
Specification of controlled education, way of implementation and compensation for absences
Exercises are compulsory, and the attendance (80 % at the minimum) is controlled and recorded. The absence (in justifiable cases) can be compensated by personal consultation with the lecturer
Type of course unit
39 hours, optionally
Teacher / Lecturer
1. Introduction. Specific requirements put on aircraft structure. Wings, general arrangement of a wing and their advantages and disadvantages.
2.Geometry of wings. Airfoils, planforms, wing sweep, wing twist. Design of master geometry model of a wing for requirements for development and manufacturing.
3. Aerostatic data for calculation of a wing loads. Load distribution on a wing. Aerodynamic loads, shearing force, bending moment and torque loading on a wing. Inertia loads, flight load factor.
4. Types of a wing design - spar wing, semi-monocoque, monocoque. Longitudinal structure system. Spars design, booms, shear webs. Stringers.
5. Cross structure system. Ribs, force ribs. Rules for metalsheet elements design. Skin, cutouts, covers. Rules for aircraft structures riveting.
6. Wing-fuselage joints for a one-piece wing and a divided wing. Rules for design of fittings. Comparison of loadings on a straight and a swept wing.
7. Ailerons, spoilers. Aileron differential. Aerodynamic balance, mass balance of ailerons. Aileron loading, aileron structural design.
8. High-lift devices. Trailing-edge flaps. Leading-edge flaps, slats. Air brakes, spoilers. Trailing-edge flap loading. Tailplanes. Configuration of tailplanes and their advantages and disadvantages. Tailplane geometry.
9. All-moving tailplanes. V-tail. Tailplane loading, tailplane structure. Aerodynamic balance, mass balance of control surfaces.
10. Fuselage. Functional and design requirements. Fuselage geometry. Cockpit, cabin design. Fuselage structural design. Joint fittings, wind shields, passenger seats, interior. Pressured cabin. Loading and stress calculation of fuselage.
11. Landing gear. Functional and design requirements. Nosewheel, tailwheel and bicycle undercarriage. Stability of undercarriage, shimmy. Wheels, brakes, shock absorbers.
12. Flight control systems. Functional and design requirements. Control systems loading.Direct manual, power-assisted, power-operated systems. Active flight control system (FBW).
13. Aircraft propulsion system. Propulsion system components. Location of the engines. Engine controls. Loading and stress calculation of the engine mounting.
26 hours, compulsory
Teacher / Lecturer
1. Determination of velocities and gust envelope. Lift distribution along a wing span for symmetrical load cases.
2. Lift distribution along a wing span for aileron and flap load cases. Investigation of share forces, bending and torque moment along a wing span.
3. Creating of a geometrical etalon of a wing and determination of cross section characteristics of the wing in the desired cross sections. Investigation of inertia loading at aileron load case.
4. Excursion to aircraft manufacture.
5. Investigation of flange cross sections in selected profiles. Design of flange.
6. Loading imposed on the wing with strut. Calculation of hinges for two spar wing.
7. Calculation of loading and load capacity of rivet joints. Software calculation of wing load cases (Introduction to software application). Loading of swept monospar wing.
8. Determination of weight for the mass balance of the elevator. Calculation of the mass balance mounting on the elevator
9. Investigation of tail surface loading at manoeuvre and gust. Calculation of the hinge moment of the elevator.
10. Calculation of forces at fittings of a stabiliser. Design of a cockpit wind shield and creation of a view diagram.
11. Determination of forces at hinges of a pressurized cabin door. Calculation of forces, load factors and acceleration during landing.
12. Design of a landing gear retracting mechanism. Stress analysis of selected parts of the control system.
13. Stress analysis of truss engine mounting. Stress analysis of beam engine mounting. Proposal of vertical tail surface static test.