Course detail

# Thermodynamic Engineering

FSI-KS1Acad. year: 2017/2018

The course “Engineering Thermodynamics” is part of theoretical basis of process engineering. Students will gain basic knowledge necessary for resolving practical tasks connected to material and power evaluations of physico-chemical processes and designing mechanical-technological systems in manufacturing and power industry or waste processing technologies. This course introduces students within one semester with methods and procedures used to describe state behaviour of gases and liquids, determine properties of substances and their mixtures required for all engineering designs (density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, diffusivity, etc.) and determine thermodynamic state variables and their changes during various processes. Thermodynamic factors influencing processes in technological equipment and conditions of thermodynamic balance are analysed. The emphasis is put on consideration the behaviour of gaseous and liquid in real conditions.

Supervisor

Department

Learning outcomes of the course unit

The course’s aim is to familiarize the students with regularities during physico-chemical processes and learn them to perform mass and energy balances of these processes. The gained knowledge and skills have a great importance for a process engineer’s work.

Prerequisites

Basic knowledge of chemistry (stoichiometric calculations, concentration expressions,).
Basic knowledge of thermodynamics (state behavior of ideal gas and liquid, the first and the second thermodynamic laws, main thermodynamic quantities).
Basic knowledge of mathematics (integration, derivation and simple differential equations solution).

Co-requisites

Not applicable.

Recommended optional programme components

Not applicable.

Recommended or required reading

Green, D., W., Perry, R., H., CHEMICAL ENGINEERS´ HANDBOOK, 8 th editon, 2007, Mc Graw-Hill International Editions, Chemical Engineering Series, , pp 2336, New York, ISBN 978-0-07-142294-9 (EN)

Richard M. Felder, Ronald W. Rosseau: Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes, 2005, Third Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken – NJ (USA), ISBN 0-471-68757-X (EN)

Chopey, N., P., Handbook of chemical engineering calculation. third edition, 2004, McGraw-Hill International Editions, Chemical Engineering Series, 2004, New York, 640 s., ISBN 0-07-136262-2 (EN)

Míka, V. a kol.: Příklady a úlohy z chemického inženýrství I., VŠCHT Praha (1997).

Shavit A., Gutfinger Ch., Thermodynamics: From Concepts to Applications, 2nd edition, 2009, 649 p, CRC PRES Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, ISBN:978-1-4200-7368-3 (EN)

Neužil, L., Míka, V.,: Řešení úloh z chemického inženýrství I a II, VŠCHT Praha (1997).

Sandler, S., I., Chemical, biochemical, and engineering thermodynamics, 4th edition, 2006, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 945 p, ISBN 978-0-471-66174-0 (EN)

Míka, V. a kol.: Příklady a úlohy z chemického inženýrství II., VŠCHT Praha (1997). (CS)

Jürgen Gmehling, Bärbel Kolbe, Michael Kleiber and Jürgen Rarey,2012, Chemical Thermodynamics for Process Simulation, 760 p., Wiley/VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, ISBN 978-3-27-31277-1 (DE)

Riazi, M.R., Characterization and properties of petroleum fractions. ASTM International, 1st edition, West Conshohocken, PA (USA),.2005, ISBN 407-0-8031-3361-8 (EN)

Planned learning activities and teaching methods

The course is taught through lectures explaining the basic principles and theory of the discipline. Exercises are focused on practical topics presented in lectures.

Assesment methods and criteria linked to learning outcomes

The credit is granted upon regular attendance on exercises and the students’ performance during exercises that prove that they have gained basic knowledge of the course during the semester and successfully written final test proving knowledge obtained from the course.

To gain the credit, a semestral paper has to be submitted. The topic of the paper is given during the semester and the main tasks of the paper are continually discussed during exercises.

The exam consists of a written and an oral part. In the written part, the student has to prove the ability to solve individually three given computation tasks. During the oral exam, the student will explain the solution of the computation and prove knowledge of the lectures’ topics. The overall evaluation also considers the results of tests written during the semester and the level of the semestral paper.

Language of instruction

Czech

Work placements

Not applicable.

Course curriculum

1.Object of physical chemistry, principles of balancing the systems.

2.Expressing of concentration.

3.State behaviour of real gases, state behaviour of liquids.

4.Introduction into thermodynamics. Poissons equations, Gas expansion.

5.Thermodynamic functions (enthalpy, internal energy, entropy, Gibbs- and Helmholtz functions).

6.Fugacity and activity.

7.Clausius-Clapeyron equation, heat of evaporation, vapour pressure, conditions for gas-liquid equilibrium.

8.Distillation and rectification, behaviour of non-ideal systems.

9.Termochemie, heat of reaction.

10.Reaction equilibrium conditions, factors affecting the thermodynamic equilibrium. Calculation of equilibrium composition for systems with chemical reaction.

11.Kinetic factors affecting the results of reactions.

12.Basic types of reactors and the basic balance equations for reactors.

13.Transport features of gas and liquid mixtures.

Aims

The course’s aim is to introduce the students to basic thermodynamic regularities of physico-chemical processes and learn them to perform basic mass and energy balance of these processes.

The course introduces students to wide range of substance properties important for balance, hydraulic, thermal and diffusion calculations of process equipment. The gained knowledge will enable the students to understand the influence of working conditions on the processes in technological equipment.

Specification of controlled education, way of implementation and compensation for absences

The course is taught through lectures in a classroom with suitable presentation equipment. The attendance at lectures is recommended. Students have access to support texts in electronic form. The exercises are carried on in given classroom and follow the topics of the lectures. The attendance at exercises is compulsory and checked.

#### Type of course unit

Lecture

39 hours, optionally

Teacher / Lecturer

Syllabus

1. The object of thermodynamics, the basic thermodynamic laws

2. Expressing of concentration, conversion of values in different units (Anglo-Saxon and SI)

3. State behaviour of real gases and liquids, deviations from ideal behaviour of gases and liquids.

4. Introduction into thermodynamics. Adiabatic processes, Poisson’s equations, gas expansion and compression, isoenthalpic process and Joule-Thomson coefficient.

5. Thermodynamic functions (enthalpy, specific heat, internal energy, entropy, Gibbs and Helmholtz functions). The influence of temperature and pressure on the thermodynamic properties of real gases and liquids.

6. Heat of reaction. Hess’s and Kirchhoff’s laws.

7. Heat of combustion

8. Conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium.

9. Factors affecting the thermodynamic equilibrium. Degree of conversion.

10. Clausius-Clapeyron’s equation and its application for heat of evaporation and vapor pressure determination.

11. Ideal and real liquid solutions. Raoult’s and Raoult-Dalton’s laws and their application. Henry’s law and its application for absorption.

12. The principles of distillation and rectification. The impact of non-ideal liquid systems on behaviour of real systems during distillation and rectification.

13. Transport properties of gases and liquids and their mixtures.

Computer-assisted exercise

26 hours, compulsory

Teacher / Lecturer

Syllabus

The exercises are practised mostly with computers exploitation.

Typical problems based on the previous lectures are solved, especially:

- Concentration conversion.

- Mass and energetic balance of steady and unsteady systems with mass and heat accumulation

- Application of gas state equations for real gases.

- Thermodynamic properties of real systems calculation.

(enthalpy, specific heat, entropy, Gibbs energy.

- Gas compression/expansion and energy consumption/getting.

- Physical properties calculation (Density of real gases and liquids calculations,

Viscosity and heat conductivity of real gases and liquids).

- Vapour pressure a heat of evaporation calculations.

- Fugacity and activity of real gas or liquids systems calculations.

- Gas-Liquid phase equilibrium.