FEKT-BSHEAcad. year: 2015/2016
Relations between subjective and objective characteristics of sound and audio signal transfer in electrical systems. Mixing console: structure, channel strips, connection to buses, outputs, digital mixing desks, DJ mixers. Measurement and indication of the level, spectrum and envelope of audio signals. Audio effects: equalizers, dynamic processors, room simulation, guitar effects, phase vocoder, spectral processing. Digital audio signal processing, A/D and D/A conversion, dithering, digital audio interfaces. Digital audio recording, hard disc recording, non-destructive editing, sound cards. Computer digital audio workstations, plug-in technology. MIDI communication interface, devices, bus interconnection. Synchronization, relative and absolute time codes. Control of sound, light and stage equipment.
Learning outcomes of the course unit
After course completion, students are to:
- describe the structure of the mixing console, explain its operation and use it for recording or sound reinforcement,
- explain the principles of measurement of level and other parameters of analog and digital audio signals,
- describe the structure and operation principle of the basic types of audio effects, describe the type of transformation which occurs in them, and use them for audio processing,
- explain the principle of digital audio signal processing and transmission,
- explain the principle and structure of digital audio signal hard disc recording (HDR),
- describe the structure of various types of audio interfaces and structure of digital audio workstations (DAW),
- describe the structure of the MIDI protocol, enumerate the messages it uses, and use them for controlling studio equipment,
- describe the types of synchronization signal, choose the proper type of synchronization for a given system,
- describe the structure of the DMX512 protocol and use it for controlling light and stage equipment.
The knowledge of basic laws and quantities in electrical circuits is required as well as the knowledge of the characteristics of electric circuit elements, circuit behaviour with inertia elements, circuit topologies with operational amplifiers and their characteristics, periodical and non-periodical signal spectra, continuous- and discrete-time systems. The student who enrols on the course should be able to use instruments for the measurement of electrical voltage, current, and resonant frequency, waveform generators and oscilloscopes.
Recommended optional programme components
Recommended or required reading
SCHIMMEL, J. Studiová a hudební elektronika. Studiová a hudební elektronika. Brno, Vysoké učení technické v Brně. 2012. (158 p.). ISBN 978-80-214-4452-2.
Watkinson, J.: The Art of Digital Audio, 3rd ed. Focal Press, 2001. ISBN 0-240-51587-0 (EN)
Zölzer, U.: DAFX - Digital Audio Effects (Second Edition). John Wiley & Sons, 2011. ISBN: 978-0-470-66599-2. Zölzer, U.: DAFX - Digital Audio Effects (Second Edition). John Wiley & Sons, 2011. ISBN: 978-0-470-66599-2. (EN)
Forró, D.: Počítače a hudba,Grada, Praha 1994 (CS)
Benson, B. K.: Audio Engineering Handbook,McGraw-Hill Book Comp. N.Y. USA, 1988 (EN)
Self, D.: Small Signal Audio Design. Focal Press, 2010, 556 s. ISBN 978-0-240-52177-0. (EN)
Forró, D.: MIDI - komunikace v hudbě. Grada, Praha 1993. (CS)
Planned learning activities and teaching methods
Teaching methods depend on the type of course unit as specified in article 7 of the BUT Rules for Studies and Examinations.
- Lectures provide the explanation of basic principles, subject methodology, examples of problems and their solutions.
- Laboratory exercises support practical mastering of themes presented in lectures. Active participation of students is required.
Participation at lectures is recommended. Participation at other ways of instruction is checked.
Course is taking advantage of e-learning (Moodle) system.
Assesment methods and criteria linked to learning outcomes
Evaluation of study results follows the Rules for Studies and Examinations of BUT and the Dean's Regulation complementing the Rules for Studies and Examinations of BUT. Up to 20 points are awarded for tests in theoretical knowledge in laboratory exercises. Up to 20 points are awarded for correct results and elaboration of all laboratory exercises. The minimal scope of the elaboration of particular laboratory exercises and complementary questions are specified by a regulation issued by the guarantor of the course and updated for every academic year. Up to 60 points are given for the final written examination and it is necessary to get at least 15 points for its successful completion. The exam consists of 10 groups of questions in the field of studio engineering according to the course syllabus, with one question selected from each group.
Language of instruction
1. Sound and its propagation, time-variable spectrum of sound. Transformation of acoustic signal into electrical signal, transfer and distribution of audio signal in electrical system.
2. Mixing desk: input circuits, equalizers, dynamic processing, channel strip, buses, outputs, interfacing external equipment, Mute and Solo functions, talkback, level diagram, DJ mixer.
3. Digital audio signal processing and transfer: sampling, anti-aliasing LPF, quantization, sigma-delta converter, normalization, dithering. Digital audio interfaces.
4. Measurement and indication of level, spectrum and envelope of audio signal, phase measurement, phase scope.
5. Digital mixing desk, digital audio recording, HDR systems.
6. Sound cards, audio signal recording and editing in computer audio workstation, plug-in technology.
7. Audio effects: frequency filters, dynamic processors, delay-line effects, room simulation.
8. Audio effects: modulation effects, wave shapers, quitar combo simulation.
9. Audio effects: pitch shifting, time compression and expansion, spectral processing, spatial effects.
10. Audio signal synthesis, linear and non-linear methods, digital synthesis, mathematical modelling.
11. Electronic musical instruments, analog-modelling synthesizer, sampler, polyphonic and multitimbral instruments.
12. Communication interfaces in music electronics, MIDI interface.
13. Synchronization of audio and video equipment and electronic musical instruments. Controlling audio, light and stage equipment.
The aim of the course is to make students familiar with the operation principle and use of analog and digital audio equipment, computer digital audio workstations and their installation in sound studios.
Specification of controlled education, way of implementation and compensation for absences
It is obligatory to work through all laboratory exercises in regular or alternative terms to complete the course. Other forms of checked instruction are specified by a regulation issued by the guarantor of the course and updated for every academic year.
Classification of course in study plans
- Programme AUDIO-J Bachelor's
branch J-AUD , 3. year of study, winter semester, 6 credits, compulsory
- Programme EEKR-B Bachelor's
branch B-TLI , 3. year of study, winter semester, 6 credits, optional specialized
- Programme EEKR-CZV lifelong learning
branch ET-CZV , 1. year of study, winter semester, 6 credits, compulsory