FEKT-BELAAcad. year: 2015/2016
Acoustic environment, sound propagation, basic quantities and relations, energy transmitted by sound. Sound spectrum. Physiological acoustics, sound masking and its utilization in compression algorithms, directional and spatial hearing. Noise and its measurement. Room acoustics, room impulse response. Electromechanical and electro-acoustic analogy, acoustic materials and structures. Types and operation principles of electro-acoustic transducers. Microphones, practical design and measurement of characteristics. Loudspeakers, acoustic impedance and distortion, mechanical design, horn-loaded loudspeakers, headphones. Loudspeaker systems, types of loudspeaker enclosures, design and construction of loudspeaker systems and crossovers. Multichannel audio systems, basics of sound reinforcement. Stereo and multichannel techniques of sound pickup.
Learning outcomes of the course unit
On completion of the course, students are able to:
- enumerate the basic acoustic quantities and their units,
- explain the physiology of hearing, including binaural auditory perception,
- employ sound level meters and use them for noise and electro-acoustic measurements,
- describe room acoustic properties, demonstrate the measurement of room impulse response and reverberation time, enumerate materials and structures used for modifying the room acoustics
- categorize electro-acoustic transducers and state their principles, properties and use,
- categorize microphones, state their properties and designs, and demonstrate the measurement of their characteristics,
- describe the properties of designs used for unloaded and loaded loudspeakers, measure and calculate their parameters,
- design loudspeaker systems and measure their characteristics,
- enumerate the types of surround sound systems and describe their principle,
- enumerate the methods of multichannel sound pickup and explain their principles.
The knowledge of basic physical laws is required as well as the knowledge of laws and quantities in electrical circuits, characteristics of electric circuit elements, circuit behaviour with inertia elements, periodical and non-periodical signal spectra, random variables and basic terms from the area of statistics. Students who enrol on the course should be able to use instruments for the measurement of electrical voltage, current, and resonant frequency, waveform generators, and oscilloscopes.
Recommended optional programme components
Recommended or required reading
SCHIMMEL, J. Elektroakustika. Elektroakustika. Brno, Vysoké učení technické v Brně. 2013. p. 1 - 167. ISBN 978-80-214-4716-5.
Škvor, Z., Akustika a elektroakusitka. Academia, Praha, 2001. ISBN 80-200-0461-0 (CS)
Smetana, C. a kol. Hluk a vibrace, měření a hodnocení. Sdělovací technika, Praha 1998. ISBN 80-90-1936-2-5 (CS)
Sýkora, B. Stavíme reproduktorové soustavy, 1. – 48. díl. A Radio 10/97 - 9/2001 (CS)
Toman, K. Reproduktory a reprosoustavy, 1. díl. Dexon, 2003. (CS)
Eargle, J. The Microphone Book. 2004. ISBN 0-240-51961-2 (CS)
Colloms, M., High Performance Loudspeakers, 6th ed. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2005. ISBN 978-0-470094-30-3 (EN)
Zwicker, E., Fastl, H. Psychoacoustics, Facts and Models, 2nd ed. Springer-Verlag, 1999. ISBN 3-540-65063-6 (EN)
Streicher, R., Everest, F., A. The New Stereo Soundbook, 3rd ed. Audio Engineering Associates, 2006. ISBN 978-0-9665162-1-0 (EN)
Planned learning activities and teaching methods
Teaching methods depend on the type of course unit as specified in article 7 of the BUT Rules for Studies and Examinations.
- Lectures provide explanations of the basic principles, subject methodology, examples of problems and their solutions.
- Laboratory exercises support practical mastering of the themes presented in lectures. Active participation of students is required.
Participation in lectures is recommended. Participation in other ways of instruction is checked.
Course is taking advantage of e-learning (Moodle) system.
Assesment methods and criteria linked to learning outcomes
Evaluation of study results follow the BUT Rules for Studies and Examinations and Dean's Regulation complementing the BUT Rules for Studies and Examinations. Up to 20 points are awarded for the tests in theoretical knowledge in the laboratory exercises. Up to 20 points can be obtained for correct results and elaboration of all laboratory exercises. The minimal scope of the elaboration of a particular laboratory exercise and the complementary questions are specified by a regulation issued by the guarantor of the course and updated for every academic year. Up to 40 points are given for the final written examination, and it is necessary to get at least 15 points for its successful completion. The exam consists of 10 groups of questions in the field of acoustics and electro-acoustics according to the course syllabus, with one question selected from each group. Up to 20 points are given for the final oral examination and it must be done on the same day as the written examination.
Language of instruction
1. Acoustic environment, basic quantities and relations, wave equation of sound propagation, energy transmitted by sound, sound spectrum. Types of acoustic fields.
2. Physiological acoustics, subjective and objective properties of sound, sound masking and its utilization in audio compression algorithms.
3. Directional and spatial hearing, 3D room simulation using headphones and loudspeakers.
4. Noise and its measurement, noise clases, loudness measurement according to Steven's and Zwicker's models.
5. Sound level meters, analyzers for electroacoustic measurements, calibration of measurement chain. Measurement of acoustic power and sound intensity.
6. Basics of room acoustics,geometric, wave and statistic models, room impulse response, measurement of reverberation time, objective parameters of listening rooms.
7. Electromechanical and electro-acoustic analogy, acoustic materials and structures.
8. Electro-acoustic transducer as the system, types and operation principles of transducers.
9. Gradient microphones, wave and combined microphones, design and measurement of characteristics.
10. Loudspeakers, acoustic impedance and distortion, mechanical design, horn-loaded loudspeakers. Types and design of headphones, measurement of characteristics.
11. Loudspeaker systems, types of loudspeaker enclosures, design and construction of loudspeaker enclosures and crossovers. Acoustic lenses.
12. Multichannel sound reproduction, basics of sound reinforcement.
13. Stereo and multichannel techniques of sound pickup.
The aim of the course is to make students familiar with the chain of processing acoustic signals from their origination through their transformation into electric signals and back to acoustic signals up to the listener's final perception.
Specification of controlled education, way of implementation and compensation for absences
It is obligatory to undergo all laboratory exercises in regular or alternative terms to complete the course. Other forms of checked instruction are specified by a regulation issued by the guarantor of the course and updated for every academic year.
Classification of course in study plans
- Programme AUDIO-J Bachelor's
branch J-AUD , 2. year of study, summer semester, 5 credits, compulsory
- Programme EEKR-B Bachelor's
- Programme EEKR-CZV lifelong learning
branch ET-CZV , 1. year of study, summer semester, 5 credits, compulsory