Course detail

Microscopy and Spectroscopy

FSI-TMKAcad. year: 2011/2012

Optical microscopy:
This part of the course is focused on the microscope optical system, to the principle and fundamental image parameters, to the contrast-enhancing and special methods of of optical microscopy and optical spectroscopy.

Lesson is devoted to the material analysis of solids by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), to physical principles and to applications mainly in semiconductor industry.
Photoelectron spectroscopy. Instrumentation. Photoemission and Auger emission process. Structure of photoelectron spectrum. Quantitative analysis. Angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy.

Learning outcomes of the course unit

Students will learn the current status of microscopy and spectroscopies (optical, SIMS and XPS) which will also help them to select their own topic (for diplomma or doctoral thesis).


Elementary Physics, Quantum Physics, Solid State Physics, Surfaces and Thin Films. Geometrical optics.


Not applicable.

Recommended optional programme components

Not applicable.

Recommended or required reading

C. Kittel: Úvod do fyziky pevných látek 1997.
R. Waser (Ed.) Nanoelectronics and Information Technology 2005.
Kasap, Capper (Ed.) Springer Handbook of Electronic and Photonic Materials 2006.
A. Beninghoven: Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry - basics concepts, instrumental aspects, applications and trends, John Wiley & Sons, NY, volume 86, 1987.
J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, M.D. Ziegler: SRIM The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter, SRIM Co., 2008.
R. G. Wilson, F. A. Stevie, and C. W. Magee: Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry - a practical handbook for depth profiling and bulk analysis, John Wiley, 1989.
W. Eckstain: Computer Simulation of Ion-Solid Interaction, Springer-Verlag, 1991.
D. Briggs, J. Grant (eds.): Surface analysis by Auger and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, IM Publications and Surface Spectra Ltd., Trowbridge 2003. (EN)

Planned learning activities and teaching methods

Teaching methods depend on the type of course unit as specified in the article 7 of BUT Rules for Studies and Examinations.

Assesment methods and criteria linked to learning outcomes

The assessment of a student is made upon his performance in practice and quality of a discussion on topics selected at the examination (lecture notes allowed at preparation).

Language of instruction


Work placements

Not applicable.


The goal is to provide an overview of the principles, devices and methods used in contemporary optical microscopy.
The goal of the SIMS part of the lesson is to provide an overview of the ion-solid interaction phenomena and its utilization in the material analysis mainly by SIMS method not only at the macroscopic scale but at the analysis of nano-objects as well.
The goal of the XPS part of the lesson is to provide an overview of the wide field of novel materials and devices for nanoelectronics.

Specification of controlled education, way of implementation and compensation for absences

The presence of students at practice is obligatory and is monitored by the tutor. The way how to compensate missed practice lessons will be decided by the tutor depending on the range and content of the missed lessons.

Classification of course in study plans

  • Programme M2A-P Master's

    branch M-FIN , 2. year of study, winter semester, 5 credits, compulsory
    branch M-PMO , 2. year of study, winter semester, 5 credits, compulsory

Type of course unit



26 hours, optionally

Teacher / Lecturer


Optical microscopy and spectroscopy:
- Principle of optical microscope, imaging system and parameters (compound microscope, conjugated planes, objective lens, substage condenser, eyepiece, illumination system and sources, magnification, aberrations, aplanatic systems, the Abbe theory of imaging, resolving power, point-spread function, optical transfer function)
- Special methods of microscopy (contrast-enhancing methods - dark field, Zernike phase contrast, Hoffman modulation contrast, oblique (anaxial) illumination, Nomarski differential interference contrast, polarization microscopy, Rheinberg illumination, fluorescence microscopy,
confocal microscopy, interference and holographic microscopy)
- Digital imaging in microscopy
- Advanced methods of optical microscopy and spectroscopy (living cells imaging, two-photon fluorescence, FRAP, FRET, STED, scanning near-field optical microscopy - SNOM, Raman spectroscopy, CARS)

Historical review of the ion-solid interaction investigation.
Modelling of the ion-solid interaction.
Products of the ion-solid interaction and their utilization in the analysis by following methods: SIMS, RBS, PIXE, ISS etc.
Principles of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS).
Experimetal setup of SIMS.
Applications of SIMS method and practical examples.

Introduction to photoelectron spectroscopy. Electron spectrometer and excitation sources (X-ray and electron sources, synchrotron).
The photoemission and Auger emission process. Photoelectron spectrum, satellite and loss structures, background. Structure, shape, width and intensity of photoelectron peaks, chemical shift.
Quantitative analysis. Electron transport through solid, layer thickness determination, angle resolved measurements.

labs and studios

13 hours, compulsory

Teacher / Lecturer


The calculation of supportive theoretical examples takes place during the whole semester. Demonstration exercises in laboratory of optical microscopy, in laboratory of surfaces and thin films (SIMS and XPS).