Physical and Materials Engineering
FSIAbbreviation: D-FMIAcad. year: 2019/2020Specialisation: Physical Engineering
Programme: Physical and Materials Engineering
Length of Study: 4 years
Accredited from: 1.9.2001Accredited until: 31.12.2020
The curriculum concentrates on the comprehensive study of materials properties and failure processes from the point of view of physics and physical metallurgy. Students should develop capability to apply their knowledge in inventive manner to new technologies and materials, such as plasma spraying, special methods of thermo-mechanical and thermo-chemical treatment, etc. Special attention is paid to the degradation processes and to the synergetic effects of various materials properties on material failure. The subjects of study are metallic and non-metallic materials, e.g., structural ceramics, polymers, amorphous and nanocrystalline materials and intermetallics.
The Ph.D. programme requires proficiency in mathematics and physics at the MSc. degree level obtained from Faculty of Science or Faculty of Mechanical Engineering.
Issued topics of Doctoral Study Program
- Analysis using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) under vacuum conditions
Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) method enables elemental analysis of a sample in any state of matter (solid, liquid, gaseous). Basic principle of this method is essentially bound to the ablation of material in the interaction region as a consequence of the impact of high power laser pulse (so called laser-matter interaction). Laser-Induced Plasma then emits characteristic emission which might be related to the sample composition. Wide range of characteristic spectral lines is present in the visible spectral range, this enable the utilization of conventional spectrometers. However, spectral lines of certain elements (C, N, S, P, Cl, Br) are typically found in the VUV region (<200 nm). Their detection is therefore non-trivial and demands specific and more complex instrumentation, which avoids the absorption of VUV emission in ambient air (mostly oxygen). The scope of this thesis is then in design and implementation of a spectrometer with detection ability enhanced in VUV range to the current device and further investigation of Laser-Induced Plasma formation under vacuum conditions.
- Development of optical fiber-based endoscopy for in vivo imaging
The methods of holographic endoscopy have recently emerged as a powerful platform to introduce sub-cellular resolution microscopy deep inside tissues of living organisms. The work will focus on applications of this technology in imaging of animal models in vivo. The candidate will develop/modify optical setups of multi-mode fiber-based endoscopes for imaging of deep brain structures as well as for immune organs. He/she will also develop/advance the software for control of data acquisition (Lab View, Matlab, C++) and image processing. Knowledge and experience in programing and optical set-up building would be useful. The work will take place at the Institute of Scientific Instruments of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic with the possibility of full-time employment. The PhD student will be a part of the research project “Gate2mu: Holographic endoscopy for in vivo applications", which is currently running at this institute. The whole Gate2mu project will consist of ca 15 people (post-grads, postdocs and several senior researchers).
- Dual-energy X-ray computed tomography
Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is a modality that was formerly used only at synchrotron based facilities. Recently it has been used in medical sphere of computed tomography (CT) and nowadays potential of DECT has been tested on laboratory based CT system with high resolution. This technique uses two energetically different X-ray spectra for examination and specific differentiation of individual sample components, in terms of materials or tissues, based on their attenuation properties. This differentiation is feasible even for materials which would be inseparable in CT data from standard CT measurement using only one beam energy. Therefore, an advantage of DECT is a possibility of precise material segmentation and classification. Furthermore, acquired information from DECT measurement can be utilized for creating pseudo-monochromatic CT images which results in specific reduction of tomographic artifacts e.g. beam hardening. Aim of this thesis will be study of DECT technique and testing its potential and utilization in sphere of laboratory CT system with submicron spatial resolution.
- Fabrication of functional nanostructures and thein analysis by surface-sensitive techniques
Due to their geometry, one-dimensional materials seem to be natural building blocks for many device systems, e.g. in electronics or photonics. Because of high surface-to-volume ratio there is a need to analyze the properties of surfaces (ether electronic, morfology etc.) by surface-sensitive techniques. However, these often lack spatial resolution. The aim of the disseration work is to study the surfaces of relevant nanomaterials (with emphasis on quasi-1D semiconductors and oxides) and correlate them with projected functional properties (e.g. optical – fotoluminiscence etc.).
- Fabrication of nanowire based devices for use in nanophotonics or bio-intefaces
Due to their geometry, one-dimensional materials seem to be natural building blocks for many device systems, e.g. in electronics or photonics. They can be easily and reproducibly contacted and allow to design 3D devices. Additionally, they seem to be natural choice for nanoscale electrodes (e.g. for detecting cells signalling) or for nanoscale-patterned macroscale electrodes (e.g. in electrochemistry). Currently, mostly undergraduates in our group deal with lithography, which is necessary for device design. We seek for a PhD candidate capable of fabricating a device geometry on demand, and aiming at performing measurements (electrical, optical) relevant for the device application (photonics, bio interfacing, sensing etc.).
- In-situ monitoring of nanostructures growth
Revealing the growth mechanisms at nanoscale is particularly challenging from many reasons. The most prominent advances in physics of nanostructure growth were achieved utilizing real-time in-situ monitoring techniques (both microscopic and spectroscopic). In our group, we have a large expertise in real time electron microscopy and, in the following year, we will install a new vacuum chamber dedicated to Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy. The aim of this PhD dissertation is to work on revealing puzzling growth modes of different nanostructures of interest (semiconductor nanowires grown by MBE, metallic/oxide threedimensional nanostructures formed by Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition etc.) utilizing state-of-the-art equipment. Close collaboration with ThermoFisher Scientific R&D labs will be part of applicants work.
- Multiphoton and non-linear Raman microscopy through a multimode fiber
Imaging at several millimetres depth in tissue, while maintaining the sub-micron resolution available in standard light microscopes, requires new types of endoscopes. Multimode fibers have shown promise as flexible endoscopes, but advanced adaptive optics is needed to overcome the phase offsets between the propagation modes in the fiber, which scrambles the image. In this project we aim to implement multi-photon fluorescence and non-linear Raman microscopy (SRS or CARS) at the end of a multimode fiber endoscope. Initially, the student will study the frequency dependent light transmission in graded index fibers (experiments and theory), with the aim to allow delivery of femtosecond pulses. Once this is achieved, we will apply this to multi-photon imaging and investigate the possibility of non-linear Raman imaging. We will evaluate which method (SRS or CARS) is more suitable for imaging through a multimode fiber. Towards the end of the project we hope to demonstrate label-free non-linear imaging in tissue. This has potential use in diagnosing tumours in situ without performing a biopsy. The project is mainly experimental with only some (<20%) theoretical modelling. The student will learn basic modelling of light propagation in an optical fiber, adaptive optics, microscopy and imaging, programming for instrument control, femtosecond pulse characterization techniques. Knowledge of optics is central to the project. Some knowledge of a programming language (Matlab, LabView or similar) would be useful. The work will take place at the Institute of Scientific Instruments of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic with the possibility of full-time employment. The PhD student will be a part of the research project “Gate2mu: Holographic endoscopy for in vivo applications", which is currently running at this institute. The whole Gate2mu project will consist of ca 15 people (post-grads, postdocs and several senior researchers).
Course structure diagram with ECTS credits
Study plan wasn't generated yet for this year.
Responsibility: Miroslav Lapčík