Course detail

Processing of Special Castings

FSI-PLIAcad. year: 2020/2021

The technology of producing castings of heat-resistant alloys of nickel and cobalt, titanium alloys, permanent magnet castings. Fundamentals of vacuum metallurgy, application of vacuum induction melting, vacuum arc remelting, electron-beam remelting. Electroslag remelting and casting process.

Learning outcomes of the course unit

Students will learn about the effect of reduced pressure on molten alloys, about heat control processes in vacuum induction furnaces, vacuum arc furnaces, vacuum electron-beam furnaces, and about methods for controlling the crystallization of special castings. They will further learn about the types of airpump used and about measuring low pressures. They will be taught the basic metallurgical calculations used in the design of heat control processes in vacuum.


Students must have the knowledge of the thermodynamics of metallurgical processes (properties of real solutions, the criterion of the progress and equilibrium of metallurgical processes, equilibria in the melt/gas and melt/refractory systems) and the crystallization theory of foundry alloys (nucleation models, transport processes in the phase of crystal growth, morphology of phase interface).


Not applicable.

Recommended optional programme components

Not applicable.

Recommended or required reading

Choudhury, A.: Vacuum Metallurgy. 1. ed. Materials Park: ASM International. 1990
Zemčík,L.: Speciální slévárenské procesy. 2. vyd. Brno: VUT Brno.1987
Zemčík,L.: Speciální slévárenské procesy-návody do cvičení. 1. vyd. Brno: VUT Brno. 1990
Davis, J.R. ed.: Metals Handbook. 1st ed. Materials Park: ASM International. 1998
Davis, J.R. ed.:ASM Specialty Handbook "Heat-Resistant Materials". 2nd ed. Materials Park: ASM International. 1998

Planned learning activities and teaching methods

The course is taught through lectures explaining the basic principles and theory of the discipline. Exercises are focused on practical topics presented in lectures. Teaching is suplemented by practical laboratory work.

Assesment methods and criteria linked to learning outcomes

Condition of awarding the course-unit credit: participation in exercises. Examination: the knowledge of physical-chemical foundations of vacuum metallurgy, practical application of vacuum metallurgy, and controlled crystallization of special castings will be tested. It is a written and oral examination.

Language of instruction


Work placements

Not applicable.


The objective is to familiarize students with the application of vacuum and other special technologies in the preparation and casting of special alloys, and the possibilities of controlling the crystallization of these alloys.

Specification of controlled education, way of implementation and compensation for absences

Attendance in lectures is recommended, attendance in exercises is obligatory.
Attending at the exercises is required, being checked by the leader of practicals. In the case of absence from exercises, the leader assigns a topic for independent written work.

Classification of course in study plans

  • Programme M2I-P Master's

    branch M-SLE , 2. year of study, winter semester, 4 credits, compulsory-optional

Type of course unit



26 hours, optionally

Teacher / Lecturer


1. Basic characteristics of gaseous mixtures in the region of low gas pressures
2. Thermal dissociation of gas compounds, equilibrium gas pressure
3. The process of carbon reaction in vacuum
4. Dissolution of gases
5. Degassing in vacuum
6. Evaporation of alloy components
7. Casting in induction and electron beam vacuum furnaces
8. Theoretical foundations of controlling the crystallization of metals
9. Production of castings with equiaxial grains, controlling the grain size
10. Castings with oriented columnar grains, single crystals
11. Permanent magnet castings with oriented columnar grains
12. Production of castings of titanium alloys in vacuum furnaces
13. Electroslag castings

Laboratory exercise

12 hours, compulsory

Teacher / Lecturer


1. Basic design nodes of the vacuum furnace, valves, sealing (laboratory for vacuum metallurgy)
2 Practical application of vacuum gauges, limit pressure of vacuum pumps (laboratory for vacuum metallurgy)
3. Viewing visit to the foundry of special castings. Preparation of ceramic shell moulds, vacuum induction furnaces for metallurgy and foundries
4. Practical demonstration of the progress of melting in vacuum induction furnaces (laboratory for vacuum metallurgy)
5. Creep test of heat-resistant alloys (creep laboratory)
6. Hot isostatic pressing of castings at high temperatures (HIP laboratory)

Computer-assisted exercise

14 hours, compulsory

Teacher / Lecturer


1. Methods for obtaining vacuum, basic types of vacuum pumps
2. Basic types of vacuum gauges used with melting vacuum furnaces
3. Determination of dissociation tension of oxides and nitrides, practical applications
4. Possibility of blocking the carbon reaction in vacuum
5. Thermodynamics and kinetics of the formation of bubbles
6. Calculation of vapour pressure of alloy components, estimate of changes in chemical composition
7. Raw materials for the charging stock. Charging stock calculation for vacuum induction furnaces