Course detail

Fluid Machinery I

FSI-MS1Acad. year: 2020/2021

The course deals with hydraulic design of flow profiles of pumps and turbines, i.e. runners, spiral cases, distributors, and provides students with detailed knowledge of behaviour of water machines at operation changes, as well as with an understanding of inception of axial and radial thrust.The hydraulic conception of fluid mechinery with scheduled parameters is also discussed.

Learning outcomes of the course unit

Students will understand basic principles of high-quality design of fluid machinery.

Prerequisites

Students are expected to be familiar with the basic parts of hydromechanics, especially with basic principles of work of fluid machines.

Co-requisites

Not applicable.

Recommended optional programme components

Not applicable.

Recommended or required reading

Nechleba, M.:Vodní turbiny, jejich konstrukce a příslušenství, SNTL, Praha, 1962. (CS)
Bednář, J.: Malé vodní elektrárny 2 - turbíny. SNTL, Praha, 1989. (CS)
Čábelka, J.: Využitie vodnej energie I, SVTL,Bratislava,1958. (SK)
Štoll, J., Kratochvíl, S., Holata, M.:Využití vodní energie, SNTL/ALFA, Praha, 1977 (CS)
Nechleba, M.,Druckmuller, M.: Vodní turbíny I, skripta VUT Brno. Brno 10/1990. (CS)
Strýček, O.:Hydrodynamické čerpadlá,skripta SVŠT Bratislava,Bratislava, 1988. (SK)
Bláha, J., Brada, K.: Příručka čerpací techniky, ČVUT Praha,1997. (SK)
Paciga, A., Strýček, O., Gančo, M.: Čerpacia technika, SNTL/ALFA, Praha,1984. (SK)

Planned learning activities and teaching methods

The course is taught through lectures explaining the basic principles and theory of the discipline. Teaching is suplemented by practical laboratory work.

Assesment methods and criteria linked to learning outcomes

Course-unit credit is conditional on participation in the seminars and submitting written reports of given computational processes.
The exam has a written and an oral part.

Language of instruction

Czech

Work placements

Not applicable.

Aims

The aim of the course is to make students familiar with hydraulic design of basic parts of fluid machinery (pump and turbine) and their parts (spiral case, distributor), behaviour of fluid machine at operational changing, cavitation inception, radial and axial thrust and characteristic features of fluid machinery.

Specification of controlled education, way of implementation and compensation for absences

Attendance at practicals is compulsory.Absence in justified cases has to be compensated for via a special task.

Classification of course in study plans

  • Programme M2I-P Master's

    branch M-FLI , 2. year of study, winter semester, 6 credits, compulsory

Type of course unit

 

Lecture

39 hours, optionally

Teacher / Lecturer

Syllabus

1. Grouping of water turbines and pumps. Basic parameters of hydraulic machines.
2. Behaviour of machines during operation changes. Diagrams of velocities.
3. The phenomenon of cavitation inside the hydraulic profile of the machines.
4. Characteristic features of hydraulic machines.
5. Basic conception of main types of water turbines. Runners of Kaplan, Francis and Pelton turbines.
6. Special case and draft tube of the reaction turbines (Francis, Kaplan).
7. Regulation apparatus of action turbines (Pelton).
8. Classification of pumps according to high-speed, the coefficient of high-speed definition, the principle of work of the impeller, connecting into hydraulic
circuit.
9. Relation to specific energy derivation, the proposition of the meridional cross-section determination of the main dimensions , the proposition of the inlet of the impeller with respect to cavitation, the cavitation depression and its measurement.
10. Blade proposition in the conformal depiction, conversion into cylindrical, so called Cartesian coordinates.
11. Behaviour of the impeller at change of revolution or at change of the diameter of the impeller, the impeller characteristics in dependece on discharge (specific
energy, cavitation depression, power requirement, efficiency and energy dissipation).
12. Spiral case hydraulic proposal of impeller pump, proposal of diffuser and return-passage vanes.
13. Axial and radial thrusts, their beginning and balancing.

Laboratory exercise

26 hours, compulsory

Teacher / Lecturer

Syllabus

1. Hydraulic losses calculation in the penstock of water power plant
system. Determination of pure specific energy of water turbine.
2. Determination of basic parameters of a water power plant, calculation of time
constants for the given hydroelectric energy plant.
3. Solution of non-stationary processing - calculation of transient pressure change
in the spiral case and machinery speed.
4. Francis turbine proposal in the hydroelectric energy system of a common water power
plant system.
5. Proposal of hydraulic machines for three-stages setting for transfer water power
plant.
6. Design of a Pelton turbine based on model characteristics measurement.
7. Meridional cross-section of the impeller proposal.
8. Blade design of the impeller in the conformal depiction, transformation on real
coordinates.
9. Position of the pump with respect to the cavitation depression. The termination of specific energy at an impeller convolution, comparison of computation with
experiment.
10. Determination of dissipation energy, computation of it by means of measured
pump characteristics.
11. Calculation of the spiral case, determination of main dimensions and spiral
throat.
12. Radial thrust computation.
13. Axial thrust computation. Bearing strain determination.