Course detail

Regulated Grammars and Automata

FIT-RGDAcad. year: 2020/2021

This course discusses the regulated rewriting as an important topic in theoretical computer science during last years. It concentrates on the latest concepts and results in the area of regulated grammars and automata, including their application. The students will write a report about regulated rewriting in relation to their own research.

Topics for the state doctoral exam (SDZ):

  • Regulated automata a grammars: basic idea.
  • Grammars with regulated use of rules.
  • Grammars with context-based regulation.
  • Regulated grammars based on algebraic restrictions.
  • Reduction of regulated grammars.
  • Parallel versions of regulated grammars.
  • Regulated finite automata.
  • Regulated pushdown automata.
  • Deep pushdown automata.
  • Jumping automata.

  • Learning outcomes of the course unit

    Thorough grasp of concepts and results achieved in regulated rewriting in formal language theory and its applications.


    formal languages


    Not applicable.

    Recommended optional programme components

    Not applicable.

    Recommended or required reading

    copies of lectures
    ROZENBERG Grzegorz and SALOMAA Arto. Handbook of Formal Languages (, Volumes 1-3. Springer, 1997
    MEDUNA Alexander and ZEMEK Petr. Regulated Grammars and Automata ( New York: Springer US, 2014. ISBN 978-1-4939-0368-9
    MEDUNA Alexander and SOUKUP Ondřej. Modern Language Models and Computation: Theory with Applications ( New York: Springer US, 2017. ISBN 978-3-319-63099-1
    many very recent papers, scientific reports, and books

    Planned learning activities and teaching methods

    Not applicable.

    Assesment methods and criteria linked to learning outcomes

    Not applicable.

    Language of instruction

    Czech, English

    Work placements

    Not applicable.


    Students will obtain an in-depth overview of models and results concerning regulated rewriting in modern theoretical computer science. Most importantly, they will  improve their ability to use these theoretical knowledge in their own research.

    Specification of controlled education, way of implementation and compensation for absences

    1. Two papers during the semester:

    • 20 points each = 15 for essay + 5 for presentation.
    • The topic has to be related to the topic of the course and approved by guarantee (Prof. Meduna).
    • After the presentation, the paper can be improved and re-submitted.

    2. Oral exam consists of two questions, 30 points each.

    Classification of course in study plans

    • Programme VTI-DR-4 Doctoral

      branch DVI4 , any year of study, winter semester, 0 credits, elective

    • Programme VTI-DR-4 Doctoral

      branch DVI4 , any year of study, winter semester, 0 credits, elective

    Type of course unit



    39 hours, optionally

    Teacher / Lecturer


    1. Regulated Formal Models: An Introduction and Basic Ideas.
    2. Context-Based and Rule-Based Grammatical Regulation.
    3. Regulated Grammars: Transformations, Normal Forms, Erasing, Derivation Restrictions.
    4. Extension of Languages Resulting from Regulated Grammars.
    5. Grammatical Regulation Based on Algebraic Restrictions.
    6. Semi-Parallel and Totally Parallel Regulated Grammars.
    7. Regulated Grammar Systems.
    8. Multigenerative Grammar Systems.
    9. Regulated Automata: Basic Ideas.
    10. Automata Regulated by Control Languages.
    11. Jumping Finite Automata.
    12. Deep Pushdown Automata.
    13. Application Perspectives; summary.

    Guided consultation in combined form of studies

    26 hours, optionally

    Teacher / Lecturer


    13 hours, compulsory

    Teacher / Lecturer


    Two essays about regulated rewriting.