Design of Electronic Circuits
FEKT-BPA-DECAcad. year: 2020/2021
The course discusses passive and active components for electronic circuits, describing the principles, properties, and applications of such items and proposing an insight into their fundamental production ranges. The topics analyzed comprise, among other issues, the basic layouts of analog circuits with bi- and unipolar transistors and operational amplifiers; in the given context, the relevant parameters, properties, and target applications are also introduced. The proper choice of suitable components is generally emphasized as a vital part of the operational chain. Further, the lectures and tutorials characterize the designing of electronic circuits from the perspectives of their feeding, minimization of spurious effects, and cooling of individual segments. The principles of circuit structuring are outlined, with a particular focus on the fabrication and mounting of printed circuit boards; the problem is then complemented with a presentation of the basic mechanics of electronic devices (including, for example, connectors, controllers, indicators, and housing boxes).
The laboratory practices and tutorials are conceived to teach circuit designing and the choice of applicable components, together with computer-based simulations, enabling the students to examine the properties of typical circuits with transistors and operational amplifiers. The exercises focuses on the following topics and activities: using the MicroCap circuit simulator, inclusive of its advanced capabilities and analytical features such as the mathematical analysis of signals (FFT, for example) and higher functions of the program’s graphical output; employing the Eagle system to design PCBs; the THT and SMD soldering processes; mounting student-designed PCBs; regenerating electronic circuits and comparing the parameters of the revived device with those of the initial, simulated design.
Learning outcomes of the course unit
The classes will acquaint the students with the fundamental range of passive and active components for analog electronic circuits, thus enabling them to reliably use catalog data in selecting suitable components for a given application and to recognize the functional principles related to various circuit elements. Upon completing the course, the students will be able to practice the typical circuit layouts comprising bipolar/unipolar transistors and operational amplifiers; design simple analog electronic circuits, including their power supply units; employ a simulator to verify the properties of the designed circuit and, if necessary, to optimize the parameters needed; seek and eliminate problems in the actual design of circuits and printed circuit boards; and to outline applicable solutions for signal and supply wiring, together with a convenient approach to conduct away the heat generated by power components.
A deep insight into circuit simulators and advanced analyses; competence in MicroCap and Eagle; operating skills related to the mounting and soldering of PCB components via SMT and THT; ability to revive simple analog electronic circuits.
Good knowledge of the topics discussed within Electrical Engineering 1 and 2 is required, and a basic precursory insight into the physics of semiconductors may help the students substantially to reach successful completion of the course.
Recommended optional programme components
Recommended or required reading
LINEAR TECHNOLOGY: Analog Circuit Design - A Tutorial Guide to Applications and Solutions. Linear Technology, 2011. ISBN 978-0-12-385185-7 (EN)
HOROWITZ, P.; HILL, W. The Art of Electronics (2nd Edition). Cambridge University Press, 1989. ISBN 978-0-521-37095-7 (EN)
BOYLESTAD, R. L. Introductory Circuit Analysis (13th Edition). Pearson 2015. ISBN 978-1292098951 (EN)
Planned learning activities and teaching methods
Teachning methods include lectures and computer laboratories. Course is taking advantage of e-learning system.
Assesment methods and criteria linked to learning outcomes
Total number of points is 100, including 30 points in written tests in exercises and 70 points in final exam. To obtain examination it is necessary to obtain 15 from maximum 30 points in test. Requirements for completion of a course are: to gain examination and to perform a final written test. Minimal necessary achieved total mark to pass this course is 50 points.
Language of instruction
1. Passive Electronic Components. Real passive components: resistors; capacitors; coils; transformers. Parasitic properties; equivalent circuits; fields of application; noise. The reliability of real components. Special passive components: varistors; thermistors; photoresistors; Peltier cells.
2. Methodology for Designing Analog Electronic Circuits. The general principles and procedures in the designing of analog electronic circuits; computer-based support for the actual circuit design processes.
3. P-N Junction and Diodes. The P-N junction in the forward and reverse directions. Current transfer in the forward and reverse directions. The P-N junction capacitance and AV characteristics. The P-N junction breakdown. Diodes: the rectifying, stabilizing, Schottky, transient-voltage-suppression, and other types. Optoelectronic components: photo-; avalanche-; and laser diodes or LEDs.
4. Unipolar transistors (FETs): structures, operational modes, and models. FETs compared with BTs. The basic properties of J-FETs and MOSFETs. Power transistors. IGBTs: structures and properties. Using bipolar and unipolar transistors.
5.Transistor Circuits. Bipolar transistor voltage amplifiers with the CE configuration: biasing, voltage amplification, and input resistance. A-, B-, and AB-class amplifiers. Capacitances in transistor amplifiers (the Miller effect). Emitter followers. Differential amplifiers with BTs. BTs used as switches. BTs as current sources. Current mirrors. The Darlington connection. FETs as amplifiers. The properties and applications of FETs as switches: analog switches; multiplexers; digital switches. FETs as controlled resistors.
6. Devices with Multilayer Structure. Thyristors: basic structures, functions, AV characteristics, and equivalent circuit. Turning on and off. Special types of thyristors. Triacs: principles and applications. Diacs and Trisils. Using switching elements. Phase control.
7. Operational Amplifiers (OAs). Ideal operational amplifiers: the basic characteristics. The properties of real OAs (input currents; input voltage asymmetry; voltage amplification; cut-off frequency; output impedance; common mode voltage suppression). Feedback. Circuit stability. Inverting and non-inverting connections. The properties of OAs with BT and FET input circuits. Output circuits in OAs. Noise. Operating principles.
8. Circuits with OAs. Differential and summing amplifiers with OAs; followers. Instrument amplifiers. Isolation amplifiers. Active rectifiers with OAs. Integrators and differentiators. Comparators; comparators with hysteresis. C/V converters; functional converters. Oscillators with OAs. Active frequency filters.
9. Voltage and Current Stabilizers. Rectifiers and filters in power supply units. Parametric voltage stabilizers. Linear voltage stabilizers. Voltage references. Fixed and settable linear integrated voltage stabilizers. Current stabilizers. Switched stabilizers: principles, basic layouts, and properties.
10. Application Rules in Designing Analog Electronic Circuits. Selecting the components, and using the application rules. Feeding and grounding real circuits. Signal distribution. Parasitic effects and their suppression. The voltage and current derating of components. Overvoltage and overload protection. Cooling of electronic components. Frequent analog circuit design errors.
11. Assembling Technologies and Printed Circuits. Printed circuits: designing principles, procedures, and errors; assembling methods. Soldering procedures and errors.
12. Basics of Electronic Circuit Structuring. Mechanical design; control and indication elements. Safety requirements.
The aim of the subject is to provide the students with the knowledge of multiple topics, including real electronic components and their properties or applications; basic analog circuits with transistors and operational amplifiers; and power supplies for electronic circuits. The classes also outline practical rules for the designing of electronic circuits and devices.